Pulmonary edema is defined as a condition of fluid accumulation in the air spaces and parenchyma of the lungs of that can lead to difficult of breathing and respiratory failure.
A. Diet to prevent Pulmonary edema
Diet to Prevent cardiovascular disease can be helpful to reduce the risk of pulmonary edema
1. Mediterranean diet
In a study of a random sample of Jewish adults, aged 35+ using a 24-h recall questionnaire. A MD score (scale 0-8) computed reflecting high ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fat; high intake of alcohol, legumes, cereals, vegetables, and fruits; low intakes of meat and it’s products, milk and dairy products. Scoring <5 was defined as Low-MD consuming, while 5+ as High-MD consuming, showed that the risk for myocardial infarction, coronary bypass, angioplasty, and any cardiovascular disease in men increased by 1.2 (P = 0.04), 1.6 (P = 0.01), 1.4 (P = 0.003), and 1.3 (P = 0.01), respectively, for each MD score decrease. In women, crude odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 1.9 but were not statistically significant(29).
2. Wholegrain cereals
In the search of CENTRAL (Issue 4, 2005), MEDLINE (1966 to 2005), EMBASE (1980 to 2005), CINAHL (1982 to 2005), ProQuest Digital Dissertations (2004 to 2005) with no language restrictions applied, found that ten trials met the inclusion criteria. None of the studies found reported the effect of wholegrain diets on CHD mortality or CHD events or morbidity. All 10 included studies reported the effect of wholegrain foods or diets on risk factors for CHD. Studies ranged in duration from 4 to 8 weeks. In eight of the included studies, the wholegrain component was oats. Seven of the eight studies reported lower total and low density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol with oatmeal foods than control foods. When the studies were combined in a meta-analysis lower total cholesterol (-0.20 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.31 to -0.10, P = 0.0001 ) and LDL cholesterol (0.18 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.09, P 150 mg/dl) were treated with 600 mg of SPS (n=15) or placebo (n=15) daily. After 4 weeks, serum TG levels in the SPS-treated group were significantly (P171 g/d, versus Q1, ≤78 g/d; HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.29-0.77). Each 25-g/d increase in white fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a 9% lower risk of stroke (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.97). Apples and pears were the most commonly consumed white fruit and vegetables (55%), according to “Colors of fruit and vegetables and 10-year incidence of stroke” by Oude Griep LM, Verschuren WM, Kromhout D, Ocké MC, Geleijnse JM.(46)
c. Dietary fiberDaily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of “Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus” by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(47)
6. Tomato is a red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belongs to family Solanaceae, native to South America. Because of its health benefits, tomato is grown world wide for commercial purpose
and often in green house.
a. Cardiovascular diseases
In the review of patents and products within the context of lycopene and CVD prevention and health claims indicated that in vitro data and results from animal experiments partly showed promising preventive mechanisms of lycopene. In contrast, until now, human intervention studies mostly failed to show any CVD prevention. However, there is still an encouraging situation, giving hints for antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory effects of lycopene. These mechanisms could be the background for cardio-protective effects of tomatoes and tomato products, according to “Lycopene and heart health” by Böhm V.(48)
b. Antioxidative and Cancer Cell-Inhibiting Activities
In the research of Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) plants synthesize nutrients, pigments, and bioactive compounds and their benefit in nutrition and human health found that Tomato extracts promoted growth in normal liver (Chang) cells, had little effect in normal lung (Hel299) cells, mildly inhibited growth of lung cancer (A549) cells, and first promoted and then, at higher concentrations, inhibited growth in lymphoma (U937) cells. The relationship of cell growth to measured constituents was not apparent, according to “Free Amino Acid and Phenolic Contents and Antioxidative and Cancer Cell-Inhibiting Activities of Extracts of 11 Greenhouse-Grown Tomato Varieties and 13 Tomato-Based Foods” by Choi SH, Kim HR, Kim HJ, Lee IS, Kozukue N, Levin CE, Friedman M.(49)
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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19739476 (25) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23479070(29) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15533543