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Monday, 4 November 2013

Popular #Herbs - Reishi Mushroom


Reishi mushroom or Lingzhi is a fungal species in the genus Ganoderma, belonging to the family Ganodermataceae, native to Asia. The herb has been use in traditional medicine as anti-caners and anti inflammatory, antioxdant agent and to enhance immune function, treat hepatitis B virus, protect against neuron degeneration, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC)
In the investigation of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) as an attractive candidate for anti-IBC therapy, found that Reishi inhibits cell invasion and disrupts the cell spheroids that are characteristic of the IBC invasive pathology. Reishi decreases the expression of genes involved in cancer cell survival and proliferation (BCL-2, TERT, PDGFB), and invasion and metastasis (MMP-9), whereas it increases the expression of IL8. Reishi reduces BCL-2, BCL-XL, E-cadherin, eIF4G, p120-catenin, and c-Myc protein expression and gelatinase activity. These findings suggest that Reishi is an effective anti-IBC therapeutic, according to "Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) inhibits cancer cell growth and expression of key molecules in inflammatory breast cancer" by Martínez-Montemayor MM, Acevedo RR, Otero-Franqui E, Cubano LA, Dharmawardhane SF.(1)

2. Prostate cancer
In the assessment of the effects of Ganoderma lucidum on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells PC-3, founf that found that Ganoderma lucidum induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells with a slight decrease in the expression of NF-kappaB-regulated Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. However, the expression of proapoptotic Bax protein was markedly up-regulated, resulting in the enhancement of the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and Bax/Bcl-xl. Thus, Ganoderma lucidum exerts its effect on cancer cells by multiple mechanisms and may have potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of cancer, according to "Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells PC-3" by Jiang J, Slivova V, Valachovicova T, Harvey K, Sliva D.(2)

3. Vascular proliferative diseases
In the assessment of extract of Reishi polysaccharides (EORP) inhibited platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF)-stimulated HASMC proliferation and the mechanism involved, found that EORP interferes with the mitogenic activation of JNK, preventing entry of HASMCs into the cell cycle in vitro and reducing cell proliferation in the neointima and decreasing the neointimal area in vivo. Thus, EORP may represent a safe and effective novel approach to the prevention and treatment of vascular proliferative diseases, according to "Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides prevent platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro and neointimal hyperplasia in the endothelial-denuded artery in vivo" by Wang SH, Liang CJ, Weng YW, Chen YH, Hsu HY, Chien HF, Tsai JS, Tseng YC, Li CY, Chen YL.(3)

4. Lung cancer
In the analyzing the effects of recombinant LZ-8 protein (rLZ-8) on the proliferation of A549 human lung cancer cells, found that The treatment of A549 cells with rLZ-8 activated p53 and p21 expression, and both the G(1) arrest and the antigrowth effect were found to be p53 dependent. It was further demonstrated that rLZ-8 inhibited tumor growth in mice transplanted with Lewis lung carcinoma cells, according to "Ling Zhi-8 mediates p53-dependent growth arrest of lung cancer cells proliferation via the ribosomal protein S7-MDM2-p53 pathway" by Wu CT, Lin TY, Hsu HY, Sheu F, Ho CM, Chen EI.(4)

5. Immune system
In the demonstration of Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus is thought to possess and enhance a variety of human immune functions, found that Our current results of analyzing rLZ-8-mediated signal transduction in T cells might provide a potential application for rLZ-8 as a pharmacological immune-modulating agent, according to "Reishi immuno-modulation protein induces interleukin-2 expression via protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways within human T cells" by Hsu HY, Hua KF, Wu WC, Hsu J, Weng ST, Lin TL, Liu CY, Hseu RS, Huang CT.(5)

6. Anti inflammatory effects
In the investigation of the water-soluble, polysaccharide components of Reishi (designated as MAK) in murine colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS), found that MAK-stimulated PMs produced GM-CSF in a dose-dependent manner. Intestinal inflammation by TNBS was improved by feeding with MAK. MLNs of mice treated with TNBS produced IFN-γ, which was inhibited by feeding with MAK. In contrast, MLNs of mice treated with TNBS inhibited GM-CSF production, which was induced by feeding with MAK and conculded that that the induction of GM-CSF by MAK may provide the anti-inflammatory effect, according to "The water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) mycelia (Designated as MAK) ameliorates murine colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid" by Hanaoka R, Ueno Y, Tanaka S, Nagai K, Onitake T, Yoshioka K, Chayama K.(6)

7. Type 2 diabetes
In the investigation of the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity has been considered to be a promising therapy approach to treat type 2 diabetes, found that The type 2 diabetic mice treated orally by FYGL showed an obvious decrease in plasma glucose level compared with the diabetic controls without drug treatment, comparable with that of diabetic mice treated with metformin, a clinical drug. The toxicity of FYGL is very low. The results indicate that FYGL may serve as a drug candidate or a health-care food for diabetic therapy or protection, according to "A protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity inhibitor from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst and its hypoglycemic potency on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic mice" by Teng BS, Wang CD, Yang HJ, Wu JS, Zhang D, Zheng M, Fan ZH, Pan D, Zhou P.(7)

8. Anti aging
In the classification of tyhe the anti aging efects of ganodermasides C and D, found that Both of them significantly extended the replicative lifespan of the K6001 yeast strain, according to "Ganodermasides C and D, two new anti-aging ergosterols from spores of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum" by Weng Y, Lu J, Xiang L, Matsuura A, Zhang Y, Huang Q, Qi J.(8)

9. Anti tumors
In the study of triterpenoids, polysaccharides, nucleosides, sterols, and alkaloids, among others from G. lucidum,and the examination of the potential role of G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLPS) in tumor therapy and the possible mechanisms involved, found that the anti-tumor activities of GLPS are mediated by its immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenic, and cytotoxic effects. GLPS affects immune cells and immune-related cells including B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells. In addition, recent data also suggest that GLPS suppresses tumorigenesis or inhibits tumor growth through direct cytotoxic effect and anti-angiogenic actions, according to "Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides: immunomodulation and potential anti-tumor activities" by Xu Z, Chen X, Zhong Z, Chen L, Wang Y.(9)

10. Ovarian cancer
In the investigation of the effect of Ganoderma lucidum on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC),
found that Ganoderma lucidum strongly decreased cell numbers in a dose-dependent manner. Ganoderma lucidum also inhibited colony formation, cell migration and spheroid formation. In particular, Ganoderma lucidum was effective in inhibiting cell growth in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells and the treatment with Ganoderma lucidum significantly enhanced the effect of cisplatin on EOC cells, according to "Ganoderma lucidum exerts anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and enhances their sensitivity to cisplatin" by Zhao S, Ye G, Fu G, Cheng JX, Yang BB, Peng C.(10)

11. Itching
In this study of the antipruritic effect of the methanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum (MEGL) in mice, found that MEGL is effective against pruritus mediated by proteinases and 5-HT and that primary afferents expressing PAR(2) and 5-HT(2A) receptors are the sites of its action, according to "Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum on acute itch-associated responses in mice" by Zhang Q, Andoh T, Konno M, Lee JB, Hattori M, Kuraishi Y.(11)

12. Hemodynamic and antioxidation
In the investigate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs) on hemodynamic and antioxidation in the T2DM rats, found that Both the middle dosage and the high dosage of GLPs could low blood glucose effectively, and they could reduce LVEP but increase -dp/dt(max). Meanwhile, they could activate GSH-Px, CAT, SOD, NO, but reduce MDA in cardiac tissue and improve the myocardial ultrastructure, according to "[Effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on hemodynamic and antioxidation in T2DM rats]. [Article in Chinese]" by Xue H, Qiao J, Meng G, Wu F, Luo J, Chen H, Zheng H, Xu J.(12)

13. Etc.

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Side effects
1. Do not use reishi mushroom because the herb is contraindicated to exopathic diseases or if you have diabetes or high blood pressure(a)
2. long term use may increase the risk of forming of kidney stone as Reishi mushroom contains a measurable amount of oxalates
3. Do not use the herb in children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without approval from the related field specialist.
4. The herb may cause allergic effect including stomach discomfort, skin rash, nosebleeds, skin irritation, dizziness, etc.

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Sources
(a) http://alternativehealing.org/ling_zhi.htm
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21888505
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15067330
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021110
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21983128
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18189229
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21973321
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21585203
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21512225
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21512225
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21399867
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20460776
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20423001