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Monday, 4 November 2013

Popular #Herbs - #Peppermint


Peppermint is a hybrid mint with small purple or white flowers and downy leaves, in the genus Mentha, belonging to the family Lamiaceae, native to to Europe. The herb has been used in folk medicine as analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, decongestant, agent and to relieve gas, nausea, and stomach pain due to an irritable bowel, intestinal cramps, or indigestion, infecttion, etc.


Health Benefits
1. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
In the review of 16 clinical trials investigating 180-200 mg enteric-coated peppermint oil (PO) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or recurrent abdominal pain in children (1 study), found that drug treatments for IBS PO (1-2 capsules t.i.d. over 24 weeks) may be the drug of first choice in IBS patients with non-serious constipation or diarrhea to alleviate general symptoms and to improve quality of life, according to "Peppermint oil in irritable bowel syndrome" by
Grigoleit HG, Grigoleit P.(1)

2. Migraine
In the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of the cutaneous application of menthol 10% solution for the abortive treatment of migraine, found that The menthol solution was also more efficacious in the alleviation of nausea and/or vomiting and phonophobia and/or photophobia (p = 0.02). In the per-protocol population, there was significantly higher number of patients who experienced at least one pain free/pain relief after the application of menthol rather than the placebo (p = 0.002). No significant difference was seen between the adverse effects of the drug and the placebo groups (p = 0.13), according to "Cutaneous application of menthol 10% solution as an abortive treatment of migraine without aura: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossed-over study" by Borhani Haghighi A, Motazedian S, Rezaii R, Mohammadi F, Salarian L, Pourmokhtari M, Khodaei S, Vossoughi M, Miri R.(2)

3. Headache of the tension type
In the determination of the effect of peppermint oil preparation on tension-type headache was examined in the design of a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study found that simultaneous application of 1,000 mg of acetaminophen and 10% peppermint oil in ethanol solution leads to an additive effect which remains below the significance threshold, however. The patients reported no adverse events. This controlled study showed for the first time that a 10% peppermint oil in ethanol solution efficiently alleviates tension-type headache, according to "[Effectiveness of Oleum menthae piperitae and paracetamol in therapy of headache of the tension type] [Article in German]" by Göbel H, Fresenius J, Heinze A, Dworschak M, Soyka D.(3)

4. Cholesterol effects
In the investigation the choleretic effect and molecular mechanisms of action of peppermint oil (PO), the main component of Danshu capsules (Sichuan Jishengtang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Pengzhou, Sichuan Province, China), found that PO might play a role in upregulating CYP7A1 and FXR mRNA levels, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms are related to gene expression involved in bile acid synthesis, according to "Preliminary experimental research on the mechanism of liver bile secretion stimulated by peppermint oil" by Zong L, Qu Y, Luo DX, Zhu ZY, Zhang S, Su Z, Shan JC, Gao XP, Lu LG.(4)

5. Cardiovascular effects
In the assessment of Cardiovascular effects of intravenous (i. v.) treatment with the essential oil of Mentha x villosa (EOMV) in pentobarbitone-anaesthetised rats, found that The present study shows for the first time that i. v. treatment with EOMV in pentobarbitone-anaesthetised rats induces hypotensive and bradycardic effects, which appear mostly attributed to the actions of the major constituent of EOMV, PO. These cardiovascular effects appear to be independent since EOMV-induced bradycardia appears dependent upon the presence of an intact and functional sympathetic nerve drive to the heart, while EOMV-induced hypotension appears independent of the presence of an operational sympathetic nervous system. This suggests that hypotensive activity of EOMV may result from its vasodilatory effects directly upon vascular smooth muscle, according to "Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa and its main constituent, piperitenone oxide, in normotensive anaesthetised rats: role of the autonomic nervous system" by
Lahlou S, Carneiro-Leão RF, Leal-Cardoso JH, Toscano CF.(5)

6. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities
In the observation of the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of essential oils from Mentha aquatica L., Mentha longifolia L., and Mentha piperita L., found that The M. piperita essential oil also exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, reducing OH radical generation in the Fenton reaction by 24 % (pure oil). According to GC-MS and TLC (dot-blot techniques), the most powerful scavenging compounds were monoterpene ketones (menthone and isomenthone) in the essential oils of M. longifolia and M. piperita and 1,8-cineole in the oil of M. aquatica, according to "Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Mentha species essential oils" by Mimica-Dukić N, Bozin B, Soković M, Mihajlović B, Matavulj M.(6)

7. Antispasmodic effect
In the investigation of Hyperperistalsis during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy
found that the effectiveness of peppermint oil administration to the gastric mucosa resulted in inhibiting the gastric peristalsis in Japanese individuals undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, according to "[Peppermint oil reduces gastric motility during the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy]. [Article in Japanese]" by Hiki N.(7)

8. Neurodegenerative diseases
In the analyzing the efficacy of peppermint oil in enhancing the bioavailability of intranasally administered neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF), found that intranasal administration of NGF formulation with 0.5% PO enhanced the bioavailability by approximately 8 fold compared to rats administered with NGF alone. The bioavailability of NGF in the brain could be enhanced by intranasal administration of peppermint oil, according to 'Enhancement of nose-brain delivery of therapeutic agents for treating neurodegenerative diseases using peppermint oil" by Vaka SR, Murthy SN.(8)

9. Prostate cancer
In the demionstartion of menthol, a key component of peppermint oil, and itsanti-proliferative activity of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) in LNCaP prostate cancer cells found that 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) and menthol cooperatively modulate the expression of bcl-2 and p21 which provides the insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the enhanced 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated growth inhibition by menthol. Thus, our findings suggest that menthol may be a useful natural compound to enhance therapeutic effects of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), according to "Menthol Enhances an Antiproliferative Activity of 1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in LNCaP Cells" by Park EJ, Kim SH, Kim BJ, Kim SY, So I, Jeon JH.(9)

10. Stimulative and sedative effects
In the investigation of the stimulative or sedative effects of inhaling fragrant essential oils (EOs) by using a forced swimming test (FST) with mice, including essential oil of peppermint, found that Inhalation of lavender oil (p<0.01) and hyssop oil (p<0.01) increased the immobile state in mice that were treated with caffeine. The results of this study indicate that the inhalation of essential oils may induce stimulative or sedative effects in mice, according to "mulative and sedative effects of essential oils upon inhalation in mice' by Lim WC, Seo JM, Lee CI, Pyo HB, Lee BC.(10)

11. Skin protection
In the evaluation the extent to which three natural oils (eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil, peppermint oil) would affect the skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid when applied topically in relevant concentrations, found that Concomitant dermal exposure to low concentrations of peppermint oil reduced the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid. The present study lends support to the notion that low concentrations of peppermint oil may act protective against percutaneous penetration of some chemicals, whereas higher concentrations may decrease the integrity of the dermal barrier, according to "Natural oils affect the human skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid dose-dependently" by Nielsen JB.(11)

12. Etc.

Side effects
1. Peppermint may cause allergic effect in certain people
2. Do not take the herb if you are pregnant or breast feeding with out approval from the related field specialist as the cooling effect may increase the risk of miscarriage to certain women, according to traditional Chinese medicine.
3. The herb may interact with other medicine such as Neoral, Sandimmune
4. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16121521
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20456191
(3)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8805113
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21791024
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11582542
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12802721
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21061544
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21038847
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19308266
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16114490
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16700820