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Sunday, 3 November 2013

Popular #Herbs - Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata)


Passionflower is also known as passion vines,, in the genus Passiflora , belonging to the family Passifloraceae, native to southeastern parts of the America. The herb has been used in traditional medicine in treating nervous tension including anxiety, insomnia, seizures, sleep problems and hysteria.

Health Benefits 1. Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity
In the investigation of saponins from Quillaja, Passiflora, and Ilex species and its effects on trichomonas vaginalis found that saponins from Passiflora alata and Quillaja saponaria presented the best anti-T. vaginalis activity (MIC = 0.025%). In addition, all samples induced erythrocyte lysis and LDH release. As far as we know, this is the first report demonstrating the potential anti-T. vaginalis activity of these saponins, according to "Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of saponins from Quillaja, Passiflora, and Ilex species" by Rocha TD, de Brum Vieira P, Gnoatto SC, Tasca T, Gosmann G.(1)

2. Anxiety
In this study, 60 patients were randomized into two groups to receive either oral Passiflora incarnata (500 mg, Passipy IranDarouk) (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) as premedication, 90 min before surgery. A numerical rating scale (NRS) used for each patient to assess anxiety and sedation before, and 10, 30, 60, and 90 min after premedication, found that administration of oral Passiflora incarnata as a premedication reduces anxiety without inducing sedation, according to "Preoperative oral Passiflora incarnata reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study" by Movafegh A, Alizadeh R, Hajimohamadi F, Esfehani F, Nejatfar M.(2)

3. Antidiabetic activity
In the identification of methanolic extracts of leaves of Passiflora incarnata and its effect (100 and 200mg/kg, for 15 days) to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice orally, found that Methanolic extract (200mg/kg) produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Significant differences were also observed in urine glucose level, oral glucose tolerance test, serum lipid profile and body weight of methanolic extract treated diabetic mice, when compared with diabetic, normal and standard drug treated mice. Histopathological studies of the pancreas showed comparable regeneration of the cells by extract which were earlier necrosed by streptozotocin, according to "Antidiabetic activity of Passiflora incarnata Linn. in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice" by Gupta RK, Kumar D, Chaudhary AK, Maithani M, Singh R.(3)

4. Sleep quality
In the investigation of Passiflora incarnata, a traditional herbal used as sedative, anxiolytic and a popular sleep aid used for the treatment of sleep disturbance, found that forty-one participants (18-35 years) were exposed to each treatment for a week, whereby they consumed a cup of the tea and filled out a sleep diary for 7 days, and completed Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory on the seventh morning. Ten participants also underwent overnight PSG on the last night of each treatment period. Of six sleep-diary measures analysed, sleep quality showed a significantly better rating for passionflower compared with placebo (t(40) = 2.70, p < 0.01). These initial findings suggest that the consumption of a low dose of Passiflora incarnata, in the form of tea, yields short-term subjective sleep benefits for healthy adults with mild fluctuations in sleep quality, according to "A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) herbal tea on subjective sleep quality" by Ngan A, Conduit R.(4)

5. Opiates withdrawal
In the demonstration of clonidine plus passiflora extract vs. clonidine plus placebo in the outpatient detoxification of 65 opiates addicts, found that the passiflora plus clonidine group showed a significant superiority over clonidine alone in the management of mental symptoms. These results suggested that passiflora extract may be an effective adjuvant agent in the management of opiate withdrawal. However, a larger study to confirm our results is warranted, according to "Passionflower in the treatment of opiates withdrawal: a double-blind randomized controlled trial" by Akhondzadeh S, Kashani L, Mobaseri M, Hosseini SH, Nikzad S, Khani M.(5)

6. Anxiogenic and anticonvulsant effects
In the classification of five different extracts, prepared from a single batch of Passiflora incarnata, administered to CF-1 mice for 1 week in their drinking water prior to evaluation of their behavioral effects found that anticonvulsant effects against PTZ-induced seizures were seen in mice that received 2 of the 5 Passiflora extracts. Instead of the anxiolytic effects described by others, anxiogenic effects in the elevated plus maze were seen in mice receiving any of the 5 Passiflora extracts, according to "Passiflora incarnata L. (Passionflower) extracts elicit GABA currents in hippocampal neurons in vitro, and show anxiogenic and anticonvulsant effects in vivo, varying with extraction method" by Elsas SM, Rossi DJ, Raber J, White G, Seeley CA, Gregory WL, Mohr C, Pfankuch T, Soumyanath A.(6)

7. Antiradical activities
In the investigation of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of passionflower and the influence of the flavonoids on the antiradical activity by DPPH* and ABTS* + methods, found that Passiflora extract has not only sedative but also antiradical activity. The ethanol extract catches free radicals more effectively than the water extract. The strongest antiradical effect among the investigated flavonoids (chlorogenic acid, hyperosid, isovitexin, caffeic acid, quercetin, luteolin, orentin, rutin, scutelarein, vicenin and vitexin) was predetermined by vicenin, isovitexin and orentin, according to "Antiradical activities of the extract of Passiflora incarnata" by
Masteikova R, Bernatoniene J, Bernatoniene R, Velziene S.(7)

8. Nicotine reversal effects
In the investigation of the Nicotine reversal effects of benzoflavone moiety (BZF) of the plant Passiflora incarnata Linneaus found that found that those mice treated with the two highest doses of BZF,in combination with nicotine (NP-10 and NP-20), showed significantly fewer nicotine-abstinence withdrawal jumps and normal ambulatory behaviour. BZF treatment prevented weight loss and resulted in normal performance in the swimming endurance test, which may be a measure of stress and/or depression. Similarly, acute administration of a single 20 mg/kg dose of BZF prevented some of the nicotine-withdrawal effects; lower doses were almost inert. These studies, although preliminary, suggest that the BZF may have value in treating nicotine addiction, according to "Nicotine reversal effects of the benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linneaus in mice" by Dhawan K, Kumar S, Sharma A.(8)

9. Drug/substance reversal effects
Administered concomitantly with nicotine, ethanol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for 30 days in male rats and benzoflavone moiety (BZF) effects in preventing the drug-induced decline in sexuality in male rats, found that BZF moiety isolated from P. incarnata is a tri-substituted derivative of alpha-naphthoflavone (7,8-benzoflavone), a well-known aromatase-enzyme inhibitor, the mode of action of BZF has been postulated to be a neurosteroidal mechanism vide in which the BZF moiety prevents the metabolic degradation of testosterone and upregulates blood - testosterone levels in the body, according to "Drug/substance reversal effects of a novel tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn.--a brief perspective" by Dhawan K.(9)

10. Etc.
Side Effects
1. Passionflower may interact with other herbs and medication, including sedative and blood thinner medicine.
2. Do not use the herb in children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without approval from the related field specialist.
3. Etc.

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