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Sunday, 3 November 2013

Popular #Herbs - Oregano



Oregano is a perennial herb with aromatic and balsamic flavor, of the genus Origanum in the family Lamiaceae, native to western and southwestern Eurasia and the Mediterranean. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral agent and to treat skin burns, cuts and bruises, sore throat, asthma, colds, coughs and flu, etc.

Health Benefits 1. Anti inflammatory effect
In the assessment of two fractions (S1 and S2) of an oregano (Origanum vulgare) extract and testing the anti-inflammatory effects on activated human THP-1 cells, found that a decrease in pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 cytokines synthesis, as well as an increase in the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These results may suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of oregano extracts and their compounds in a cellular model of atherosclerosis, according to "Supercritical fluid extraction of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essentials oils: anti-inflammatory properties based on cytokine response on THP-1 macrophages" by Ocaña-Fuentes A, Arranz-Gutiérrez E, Señorans FJ, Reglero G.(1)

2. Anti microbial effects
In the evaluation of Oregano essential oil (OEO) and its effect on the growth of natural contaminating molds on the surface of Spanish fermented sausage, found that the use of OEO to inhibit surface fungi did not affect the sausage drying process, pH, water activity, or color changes during ripening. These parameters change in a typical pattern for fermented dry-cured sausages during ripening. At the end of ripening, OEO-treated sausages had lower hardness and greater chewiness than the control but showed similar textural properties to sausages treated with potassium sorbate, according to "Role of Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Essential Oil as a Surface Fungus Inhibitor on Fermented Sausages: Evaluation of Its Effect on Microbial and Physicochemical Characteristics" by Chaves-López C, Martin-Sánchez AM, Fuentes-Zaragoza E, Viuda-Martos M, Fernández-López J, Sendra E, Sayas E, Angel Pérez Alvarez J.(2)

3. Antiurolithic activity
In the evaluation of the crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Origanum vulgare (Ov.Cr) for possible antiurolithic effect, found that Antiurolithic activity in Ov.Cr, possibly mediated through inhibition of CaOx crystallization, antioxidant, renal epithelial cell protective and antispasmodic activities, rationalizes its medicinal use in urolithiasis, according to "Antiurolithic activity of Origanum vulgare is mediated through multiple pathways" by Khan A, Bashir S, Khan SR, Gilani AH.(3)

4. Antioxidants
In the comprison of twenty-five essential oils and their major chemical components, including Oregano, were screened for their possible antioxidant activities by assaying their DPPH free-radical scavenging activity (DFRS), total phenolic contents (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric thiocyanate (FTC). Based on the TPC and TEAC assays
found that two major chemical components of the essential oils cinnamon bark extra, ajowan, and oregano were trans-cinnamaldehyde (90.61%), eugenol (2.58%), carvacrol (61.20%), p-cymene (37.44%), thymol (77.09%), and p-cymene (10.01%). It is clear that phenolic compounds in the aforementioned essential oils yield a positive correlation with the DFRS, TPC, TEAC, and FTC assays, according to "A study of four antioxidant activities and major chemical component analyses of twenty-five commonly used essential oils" by
Huang CC, Wang HF, Chen CH, Chen YJ, Yih KH.(4)

5. Wound healing
In the determination of the efficacy of 3% oregano extract ointment on wound healing found that Oregano extract ointment decreased bacterial contamination and subsequent infection on post-surgical wounds and had equivalent overall scar appearance compared to petrolatum, according to "Oregano extract ointment for wound healing: a randomized, double-blind, petrolatum-controlled study evaluating efficacy" by Ragi J, Pappert A, Rao B, Havkin-Frenkel D, Milgraum S.(5)

6. Liver cancer
In the observation of Carvacrol is one of the members of monoterpene phenol found in the volatile oils of Thymus vulgaris, Carum copticum, origanum and oregano and testing for its anti-hepatocarcinogenic activities found that that carvacrol may induce apoptosis by direct activation of the mitochondrial pathway, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway may play an important role in the antitumor effect of carvacrol. These results have identified, for the first time, the biological activity of carvacrol in HepG2 cells and should lead to further development of carvacrol for liver disease therapy, according to "Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of carvacrol on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG-2" by Yin QH, Yan FX, Zu XY, Wu YH, Wu XP, Liao MC, Deng SW, Yin LL, Zhuang YZ.(6)

7. Anti cataractogenesis
In the assessment of the antioxidant effect of Origanum vulgare extract against selenite-induced cataractogenesis, found that Ov extract have revealed a significant protective effect against selenite induced cataract when injected 1 and 2 day (2 times) before selenite injection. There is a protective effect of Ov against selenite induced cataract formation. It is supposed that the anticataract effect of Ov extract could be based on direct or indirect antioxidant mechanisms, according to "Prevention of selenite-induced cataractogenesis by Origanum vulgare extract" Dailami KN, Azadbakht M, Pharm ZR, Lashgari M.(7)

8. Prolongevity effects
In the demonstration of the oregano-cranberry (OC) mixture and its effect on longevity in the Mexican Fruit fly, found that OC extends lifespan and promotes reproduction partly through DR-independent pathways, and short-term supplementation have varied impact on longevity and reproduction. This also suggests a positive interaction between non-genetic interventions in promoting longevity and provides guidance for using botanicals as aging interventions in humans. according to "Prolongevity effects of a botanical with oregano and cranberry extracts in Mexican fruit flies: examining interactions of diet restriction and age" by Zou S, Carey JR, Liedo P, Ingram DK, Yu B.(8)

9. Cognitive effects
In the investigation of the extract from oregano leaves, with a specified range of active constituents and theirs effect on the modulation of mood, anxiety, cognition, sleep regulation and appetite found that extract prepared from leaves of oregano, a major constituent of the Mediterranean diet, is brain-active, with moderate triple reuptake inhibitory activity, and exhibits positive behavioural effects in animal models. We postulate that such an extract may be effective in enhancing mental well-being in humans, according to "Monoamine reuptake inhibition and mood-enhancing potential of a specified oregano extract" by Mechan AO, Fowler A, Seifert N, Rieger H, Wöhrle T, Etheve S, Wyss A, Schüler G, Colletto B, Kilpert C, Aston J, Elliott JM, Goralczyk R, Mohajeri MH.(9)

10. Antimalarial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities
In the determination of the the effects of 46 compounds of essential oil from oregano leaves on antimalarial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities.found that the aqueous extract had the highest antioxidant activity with an IC50=4.8±0.2 mg/L (DPPH assay). Concerning antimalarial activity, Origanum compactum essential oil and ethyl acetate extract showed the best results with an IC50 of 34 and 33 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, ethyl acetate extract (30 mg/L) and ethanol extract (56 mg/L) showed activity against human breast cancer cells (MCF7). The oregano essential oil was considered to be nontoxic, according to "Oregano: chemical analysis and evaluation of its antimalarial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities" by El Babili F, Bouajila J, Souchard JP, Bertrand C, Bellvert F, Fouraste I, Moulis C, Valentin A.(10)

11. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Overdose oregano may cause allergic effect such as tongue swollen, palpitation, etc.
2. Do not use the herb, if you are allergic to herbs of the mint family
3. Do not use the herb in children or if you are pregnant without approval from the related field specialist.
4. Overdose can be toxic.
5. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20332013
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22221361
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22004514
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21982354
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21968667
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21938469
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21850936
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21455602
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21205415
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21535822