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Friday, 8 November 2013

Popular #Herbs - Bromelain


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Bromelain, a proteolytic enzymes found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as inflammatory agent and to treat pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.

Health Benefit

1. Neutrophil migration
Bromelain has shown the property of effectively decreasing of the neutrophil migration to sites of acute inflammation and support the specific removal of the CD128 chemokine receptor, according to the study of "Bromelain treatment decreases neutrophil migration to sites of inflammation", by Fitzhugh DJ, Shan S, Dewhirst MW, Hale LP., posted in PubMed(1)

2. Asthma

Bromelain, the extract of pineapple have found effectively in treating an Ovalbumin-induced Murine Model of Asthma female mice by decreased methacholine sensitivity (P Oral Bromelain Attenuates Inflammation in an Ovalbumin-induced Murine Model of Asthma" by Secor ER, Carson WF, Singh A, Pensa M, Guernsey LA, Schramm CM, Thrall RS., posted in PubMed(2)

3. Brain and spiral Tumor

Bromelain is an aqueous extract from pineapple stem has demonstrated that bromelain significantly and reversibly reduced glioma cell adhesion, migration, and invasion without affecting cell viability, even after treatment periods extending over several months, according to the study of "Bromelain reversibly inhibits invasive properties of glioma cells" by Tysnes BB, Maurer HR, Porwol T, Probst B, Bjerkvig R, Hoover F., posted in PubMed(3)

4. Digestive system and Diabetes

Bromelain
(BR), a cysteine protease has shown the inhibitory effects on intestinal secretion and inflammation, such function throught the induction of the antispasmodic effect. In vivo, BR preferentially inhibited motility in pathophysiologic states in a PAR-2-antagonist-sensitive manner as the result researchers suggested that bromelain could be a lead compound for the development of new drugs, able to normalize the intestinal motility in inflammation and diabetes according to the study of "Inhibitory effects of bromelain, a cysteine protease derived from pineapple stem (Ananas comosus), on intestinal motility in mice" by Borrelli F, Capasso R, Severino B, Fiorino F, Aviello G, De Rosa G, Mazzella M, Romano B, Capasso F, Fasolino I, Izzo AA., posted in PubMed(4)

5. Anti-inflammatory activity
In rat study, bromelain inhibits plasma exudation through inhibiting the generation of bradykinin at the inflammatory site via depletion of the plasma kallikrein system, according to the study of "Effect of bromelain on kaolin-induced inflammation in rats" by Kumakura S, Yamashita M, Tsurufuji S., posted in PubMed(5)

6. Bromelain in cardiovascular diseases

In the review out of Out of 223 papers retrieved, 6 papers met the inclusion criteria(Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), human studies, animal studies and experimental studies related to bromelain for CVDs. Data extraction and analysis: The quality assessment of all the selected studies was conducted by the authors. Data from 3 animal trials and 3 human trials were included in the review. Data collected included: type of trial, drug dosage, duration, outcome measures, characteristics of bromelain used, significance of results and conclusion), bromelain could be used for treating acute thrombophlebitis, as it decreases aggregation of blood platelets, has a cardio-protective effect, ameliorates rejection-induced arterial wall remodelling, prevents thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation as well as reduces thrombus formation, according to the study of "A review of the use of bromelain in cardiovascular diseases" by Ley CM, Tsiami A, Ni Q, Robinson N., posted in PubMed(6)

(7) Bromelain and Skin diseases

Bromelain
has shown significantly inhibited Cox-2 and inactivated NF-kappaB by blocking phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IkappaBalpha. In addition, bromelain treatment attenuated DMBA-TPA-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt, according to the study of "Regulation of p53, nuclear factor kappaB and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by bromelain through targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in mouse skin" by Kalra N, Bhui K, Roy P, Srivastava S, George J, Prasad S, Shukla Y., posted in PubMed(7)

8. Bromelain and Burn and wound healing

Bromelain
-derived enzymatic preparation has shown the result of rapid and selective debridement of human and animal burns, according to the study of "The effects of rapid enzymatic debridement of deep partial-thickness burns with Debrase on wound reepithelialization in swine" by Singer AJ, Taira BR, Anderson R, McClain SA, Rosenberg L., posted in PubMed(8)

9. Bromelaine and acute sinusitis

Proteolytic enzyme bromelaine obtained from pineapple (Bromelain-POS, Ursapharm GmbH, Saarbrücken, Germany) was evaluated in children under the age of 11 years diagnosed with acute sinusitis has shown a statistically significant faster recovery from symptoms (p = 0.005) compared to the other treatment groups, according to the study of "Therapeutic use, efficiency and safety of the proteolytic pineapple enzyme Bromelain-POS in children with acute sinusitis in Germany" by Braun JM, Schneider B, Beuth HJ., posted in PubMed(9)

10. Bromelain and asthma and hypersensitivity

Bromelain
, a clinically used pineapple extract and natural product, has reported anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities in treating asthma and hypersensitivity disorders, according ton the study of "Bromelain exerts anti-inflammatory effects in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of allergic airway disease" by Secor ER Jr, Carson WF 4th, Cloutier MM, Guernsey LA, Schramm CM, Wu CA, Thrall RS., posted in PubMed(10)

11. Anti cancer
Some studies have shown that bromelain has the capacity to modulate key pathways that support malignancy. It is now possible to suggest that the anti-cancer activity of bromelain consists in the direct impact on cancer cells and their micro-environment, as well as in the modulation of immune, inflammatory and haemostatic systems, according to the study of "Bromelain's activity and potential as an anti-cancer agent: Current evidence and perspectives" by Chobotova K, Vernallis AB, Majid FA., posted in PubMed(11)

12. Dyspepsia
Bromelain
has exerted the property in treating upset stomach or pain or discomfort in the upper belly by stimulating enzymatic activity, according to the study of "Benefit of dietary integrators for treating functional dyspepsia: a prospective pilot study.[Article in English, Italian]" by Pellicano R, Strona S, Simondi D, Reggiani S, Pallavicino F, Sguazzini C, Bonagura AG, Rizzetto M, Astegiano M., posted in PubMed(12)

13. Renal diseases and tubulointerstitial fibrosis
Bromelain proteolytic enzymes has improved proteinuria and urinary TGF-beta 1 excretion, as well as the severity of tubulointerstitial fibrosis without signs of toxicity, according to the study of "The effect of oral protease administration in the rat remnant kidney model" Sebeková K, Dämmrich J, Krivosíková Z, Heidland A." by posted in PubMed(13)

14. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Bromelain supplements may have side effects or interact with medications
2. It may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and excessive menstrual bleeding if over dose or as a result of allergic effect
3. Bromelain may increase bleeding during and after surgery.
4. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18482869
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18317550
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11774029
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21689210
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3046953
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21749819
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17889918
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20661148
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15796206
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16337164
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19700238
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19829282
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10639701