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Sunday, 24 November 2013

Pleural disease – Pleural effusion Treatments Caused by Pneumonia

The pleura is a thin tissue covered by a layer of cells (mesothelial cells) that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest wall.
B. Pleural effusion
It is a condition of collection of fluid within the pleural cavity as a result of heart failure, bleeding (hemothorax), infections, excessive or decreased fluid volume, etc.
B.6. Treatments
B.6.1. Treatments in conventional medicine perspective
B.6.1.2. Pleural effusion Caused by Pneumonia
Antibiotics are the mosst efective medication used to treat pneumonia. Other medication used conjucntion with antibiotics can be helpful in relieveing breathing and symptoms.
1. Antibiotics
Pneumonia caused by bacterial pathogens is the leading cause of mortality in children in low-income countries. In a review to identify effective antibiotics for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children by comparing various antibiotics, conducted by All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, indicated that for treatment of ambulatory patients with CAP, amoxycillin is an alternative to co-trimoxazole. With limited data on other antibiotics, co-amoxyclavulanic acid and cefpodoxime may be alternative second-line drugs. For severe pneumonia without hypoxia, oral amoxycillin may be an alternative to injectable penicillin in hospitalised children; however, for ambulatory treatment of such patients with oral antibiotics, more studies in community settings are required. For children hospitalised with severe and very severe CAP, penicillin/ampicillin plus gentamycin is superior to chloramphenicol. The other alternative drugs for such patients are ceftrioxone, levofloxacin, co-amoxyclavulanic acid and cefuroxime. Until more studies are available, these can be used as a second-line therapy(80).
Side effects are not limit to soft stools or diarrhea, mild stomach upset, etc.
2. Antivirals
Parainfluenza viruses affect the upper respiratory tract in all age group patients, in children aged 6 months to 3 years in particular. In the study to investigate the antiviral activity of Ingavirin (2-(imidazole-4-yl) ethanamide of pentandioic-1,5 acid) on a model of parainfluenza infection in Syrian hamsters, showed that the drug was shown to restrict the infectious process in animal lung tissue. This restriction manifested itself as reductions in the infectious titer of parainfluenza virus in the lung tissue, in the degree of pulmonary edema and tissue cell infiltration, and in virus-specific lesion of bronchial epithelial cells(81). Side effects are not limit to dizziness, fatigue, joint or muscle pain, headache, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, weight loss, insomnia, etc.
3. Other Supportive treatment to reduce symptoms, include
Fever and pain reducers such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen or acetaminophen, etc. and cough medicine.
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(80) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20238334
(81) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22834146