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Sunday, 24 November 2013

Pleural disease – Pleural effusion Treatments Caused by Lupus

The pleura is a thin tissue covered by a layer of cells (mesothelial cells) that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest wall.
B. Pleural effusion
It is a condition of collection of fluid within the pleural cavity as a result of heart failure, bleeding (hemothorax), infections, excessive or decreased fluid volume, etc.
B.6. Treatments
B.6.1. Treatments in conventional medicine perspective
B.1.6.5. Pleural effusion Treatments Caused by Lupus
Management of central nervous system (CNS) involvement still remains one of the most challenging problems in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In the assessment of the diseases, some researchers suggested that the choice of treatment depends on the most probable underlying pathogenic mechanism and the severity of the presenting neuropsychiatric symptoms. Patients with mild manifestations may need symptomatic treatment only, whereas more severe acute nonthrombotic CNS manifestations may require pulse intravenous cyclophosphamide. Plasmapheresis may also be added in patients with more severe illness refractory to conventional treatment. Recently, the use of intrathecal methotrexate and dexamethasone has been reported in a small series of patients, with a good outcome in patients with severe CNS manifestations. Anticoagulation is warranted in patients with thrombotic disease, particularly in those with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). This article reviews the clinical approach to therapy in patients with CNS lupus(102)
Other suggested that the therapeutic choice depends on accurate diagnosis, identification of underlying pathogenic mechanism, severity of the presenting neuropsychiatric symptoms, and on prompt identification and management of contributing causes of CNS disease. Mild neuropsychiatric manifestations may need symptomatic treatment only. In more severe CNS disease it is important to distinguish between thrombotic and non-thrombotic mechanisms. Focal CNS manifestations, particularly TIA and stroke, are associated with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Anticoagulation is warranted in patients with thrombotic disease, particularly in those with the antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS). Other CNS manifestations, such as demyelinating syndrome, transverse myelitis, chorea, seizures, migraine and/or cognitive dysfunction, when associated with persistent positivity for aPL, may also benefit from anticoagulation in selected patients. Severe diffuse CNS manifestations, such as acute confusional state, generalised seizures, mood disorders and psychosis, generally require corticosteroids in the first instance. Pulse intravenous cyclophosphamide therapy may help when more severe manifestations are refractory to corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, generally when response is not seen in 3-5 days. Plasmapheresis may also be added in severe cases of symptoms refractory to conventional treatment. Intravenous immunoglobulins, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab, intratecal methotrexate and dexametasone deserve further studies to confirm their usefulness in the treatment of neuropsychiatric SLE(103)
1. Symptomatic therapy
1.1. Symptomatic therapy is defined as a medical therapy used to treat the symptoms of the disease but not its causes, such as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, Antitussives agents, etc.
b. Side effects are not limit to
b.1. Anti-Inflammatory agent (hypertension, skin rash and itching, gastrointestinal discomforts, ulcers and bleeding, kidney damage, etc.
b.2. Analgesics (long-term use of pain relievers can be addictive, stomach irritation, Over doses (2000 mg/day or more) can cause liver damage, etc.
b.3. Antitussives agents (Nausea, vomitin, skin rash and itching, welling, dizziness, etc.
2. Intravenous cyclophosphamide, methotrexate or dexamethasone or immunoglobulin
a. Depending to the severity of the diseases, medical condition, weight, response to therapy cyclophosphamide or methotrexate or dexamethasone or immunoglobulin is injection into a vein by your doctor or a healthcare professional.
b. Side effects sre not limit to
b.1. Cyclophosphamide (Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach ache, diarrhea, s, temporary hair loss, unusual tiredness or weakness, joint pain, easy bruising/bleeding, etc.)
b.2. Methotrexate (Dizziness, general body discomfort, headache, loss of appetite, mild sore throat, mild stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, tiredness, etc.)
b.3. Dexamethasone (Difficulty sleeping, feeling of a whirling motion, increased appetite and sweating, indigestion; mood swing, nervousness, etc.)
b.4. Immunoglobulin(headache, dermatitis, chills, migraine, dizziness, fever, nausea, vomiting, fatigue , itching, increased Blood Pressure etc.)
3. Immunosuppressive Therapy
a. Immunosuppressive Therapy is defined as the treatment to suppress the immune response to antigen(s), on most cases it is used in conditions such as organ transplantation, autoimmune disease, allergy, etc.
b. Side effects are not limit to
b.1. Fever
b.2. High blood pressure
b.3. Kidney function.
b.4. Researchers found that Remissions were cyclosporine dependent in 26% of the patients responding to a regimen that included cyclosporine. Clonal or malignant diseases developed in 25% of the patients.
b.5. Etc.
4. Anticoagulant therapy
a. Anticoagulants is also well as blood thinners, used to slow the rate of blood clots of diseases such as thrombosis to atrial fibrillation.
b. Side effects are not limit to
b.1. Itching,
b.2. Rashes
b.3. Easy bruising,
b.4. Increased the risk of bleeding from injuries
b.5. Purplish spots on the skin
b.6. Etc.
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(102) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14714914
(103) http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/101/4/1236.full