B. Pleural effusion
It is a condition of collection of fluid within the pleural cavity as a result of heart failure, bleeding (hemothorax), infections, excessive or decreased fluid volume, etc.
B.6.1. Treatments in conventional medicine perspective
Radiographs may be continued used to monitor the progression of lung nodules, if the tumor does not double in size in less than a year and it does not become cancerous. Other wise surgery may be the only option, but the aim of the surgery is to spare the lung, unless it is absolutely necessary for it to be removed and depending to the patients conditions
1. Endoscopic cryotherapy
In a systematic review and evaluation of endoscopic cryotherapy of endobronchial tumors, investigating safety and efficacy, found that endoscopic cryotherapy was found to be a safe and useful procedure in the management of endobronchial tumors although its efficacy and appropriate indications have yet to be determined in well-designed controlled studies(96).
Less than 1% of lung neoplasms are represented by benign tumors. Among these, hamartomas are the most common with an incidence between 0.025% and 0.32%. According to the study by the University of Messina, bronchotomy or parenchimal resection through thoracotomy should be reserved only for cases where the hamatoma cannot be approached through endoscopy, or when irreversible lung functional impairment occurred after prolonged airflow obstruction. Generally, when endoscopic approach is used, this is through rigid bronchoscopy, laser photocoagulation or mechanical resection. Here we present a giant EH occasionally diagnosed and treated by fiberoptic bronchoscopy electrosurgical snaring(97).
3. Pulmonary segmentectomy
Pulmonary segmentectomy has been recognized as an operative option for complete resection of early-stage lung cancer in patients with poor pulmonary function. According to the study by, transbronchial indocyanine green injection into the relevant bronchus with the use of an infrared thoracoscope allows identification of intersegmental lines and planes during thoracoscopic segmentectomy(98).
In the study to assess 14,473 patients who met our inclusion criteria, lobectomy conferred superior unadjusted overall (p < 0.0001) and cancer-specific (p = 0.0053) 5-year survival compared with segmentectomy. Even after adjusting for patient factors, tumor characteristics, and geographic location, we noted that patients who underwent lobectomy had superior overall and cancer-specific survival rates, regardless of tumor size(99).
5. Sleeve resection
There is a report of a 75-year-old man complained of sputum and was referred to our department. His sputum cytology was class III. Chest X-ray and computed tomography showed no abnormalities, but bronchoscopy revealed an elevated lesion in the membranous portion of the left main bronchus, which was pathologically diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma in situ. Since bronchoscopy revealed no other lesions in the visible parts of the airway, it was considered to be a solitary, early lung cancer, and sleeve resection of the left main bronchus was performed(100).
6. Completion pneumonectomy (CP)
Completion pneumonectomy (CP) is a difficult operation in which the surgeon must use techniques such as intrapericardial ligation of the pulmonary vessels. There is a case of CP for a patient with recurrent lung cancer. A 63-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of abnormal shadows in the right lung field in October 2002. Right middle lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection had been performed in February 1993. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a hilar mass in the right upper lobe the day after admission. Bronchofiberscopic cytology revealed squamous cell carcinoma. Right completion pneumonectomy was performed on suspicion of metachronous multiple lung cancers 4 days later. Histopathologically, resected specimens represented adenosquamous carcinoma similar to the prior lesion from the middle lobe, and examination revealed that the tumor represented a recurrence following middle lobectomy. The patient remains well as of 19 months postoperatively(101).
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