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Sunday, 24 November 2013

Pleural disease – Pleural effusion – The Symptoms

The pleura is a thin tissue covered by a layer of cells (mesothelial cells) that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest wall.
B. Pleural effusion
It is a condition of collection of fluid within the pleural cavity as a result of heart failure, bleeding (hemothorax), infections, excessive or decreased fluid volume, etc.
B.2. SymptomsPatients in the early stage of the diseases are experience no symptoms, but in cases of inflammation or presence of excessive or decreased fluid volume, symptoms include
1. DyspneaThere is a report of a hypertensive 58-year-old woman with hepatic nodules presented dyspnea and pleural effusion one week after an episode of pulmonary embolism(12).
2. Shortness of breath and abdominal distention There is a report of an 84-year-old man presented to his local hospital after falling from his wheelchair. He had tachypnea and abdominal distention. Chest radiography revealed a right-sided pleural effusion, and abdominal radiography showed dilated loops of bowel, suggestive of bowel obstruction, with symptoms of shortness of breath and abdominal distention(13).
3. Chest painthere is a report of a case of a patient who experienced atelectasis of the lower lobe of the left lung and pleural effusion manifested by chest pain after continuous interscalene brachial plexus block for postoperative analgesia(14).
4. FeverIn the study to evaluate patients who have both fever of unknown origin (FUO) and a nondiagnostic pleural effusion, one week after admission to a department of general internal medicine over 15 years of found that seven were found to have associated pleural effusion(s) on admission (9.8%). In these patients, the pleural effusion was predominantly left-sided, small to moderate in amount and nondiagnostic on thoracentesis(15).
5. Cough There is a case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 25-1996. A 38-year-old man with fever, cough, and a pleural effusion(16).
6. Interscapular painThere is a report of a 48-year-old woman with a pleural pseudoneoplasm requiring different diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. After initial presentation with increasing dyspnoea, temperature, dry cough, and interscapular pain diagnostic processing showed a large mediastinal mass with marked pleural effusion and high metabolic activity in the 18F-FDG-PET/CT(17)
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(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22527020
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3031441/
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14634945
(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22362125
(16) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8676954
(17) http://www.hindawi.com/crim/pulmonology/2012/102196/