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Wednesday, 6 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 9 Health Benefits of Caffeic acid

Caffeic acid is a organic phytochemical of the class of hydroxycinnamic acid, found in all plants, including burdock, hawthorn, artichoke, pear, basil, thyme, oregano, apple, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Liver cancer
In the studies of cancer chemoprevention with caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in the resistant hepatocyte model of hepatocarcinogenesis, indicated that microsomal assays demonstrated that CAPE interfered with DEN activation diminishing nitrites similar to SKF525A and probably mediated by CYP2B1/2 inhibition. A single dose of CAPE before DEN treatment reduced the appearance of tumors by 43%, according to "Cancer Prevention Mediated by Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Involves Cyp2b1/2 Modulation in Hepatocarcinogenesis" by Beltrán-Ramírez O, Macías Pérez R, Sierra-Santoyo A, Villa-Treviño S.(1)

2. Antioxidant Effect
In the testing the antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic (HAB) and aqueous extracts (AB) from the bark and aqueous extract (AL) from the leaves of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium to determine a possible association between antioxidant activity and the popular use of this plant,
found that gallic acid, catechin, rutin and caffeic acid were the major components of the crude extracts of S. rotundifolium. Plant extracts inhibited Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates. Iron chelation was also investigated and only HBA exhibited a weak activity. Taken together, the results suggest that S. rotundifolium could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress, according to "Antioxidant Effect of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Martius Extracts from Cariri-Ceará State (Brazil): Potential Involvement in Its Therapeutic Use" by Costa JG, Leite Gde O, Dubois AF, Seeger RL, Boligon AA, Athayde ML, Campos AR, Rocha JB.(2)

3. Neurodegenerative effects
In the investigated Neuroprotective effect of CAPE in rat organotypic midbrain slice cultures and in vivo experimental mouse model of dopaminergic neurodegeneration by intranigral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, found that neuroprotective effect of CAPE against LPS-induced injury was prevented by zinc protoporphyrin IX or anti-BDNF antibody. CAPE protected dopaminergic neurons and alleviated methamphetamine-induced rotational behavior also in 6-hydroxydopamine hemi-parkinsonian mice, according to "Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects nigral dopaminergic neurons via dual mechanisms involving heme oxygenase-1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor" by Kurauchi Y, Hisatsune A, Isohama Y, Mishima S, Katsuki H.(3)

4. Immunoregulatory effects
In the study of PBMCs from asthmatic children (5.5 ± 3.3 years old, n=28) and healthy children (5.6 ± 2.8 years old, n=23) were co-cultured with CAPE in vitro with and without phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-ionomycin, found that he immunoregulatory effects of CAPE on human PBMCs may be through the induction of regulatory T cells, as evidenced by the enhanced transforming growth factor-beta 1 production from PBMCs from asthmatic children in our study, according to "The immunoregulatory effects of caffeic Acid phenethyl ester on the cytokine secretion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from asthmatic children" by Sy LB, Yang LK, Chiu CJ, Wu WM.(4)

5. Antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities
In the investigation of 9 compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of C. sinensis, namely protocatechuic acid (1), trans-caffeic acid (2), methyl rosmarinate (3), rosmarinic acid (4), kaempferide-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), kaempferide-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (8) and kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamno-pyranosyl (1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (9) for biological activity and showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageen induced rat paw edema test and the antioxidant activities of isolated compounds 1-9 were evaluated by the DPPH radical scavenging test, and compounds 1, 2, 4 and 7-9 exhibited marked scavenging activity compared to the standard BHA. These compounds were further studied for their anti-glycation properties and some compounds showed significant anti-glycation inhibitory activity, according to "Antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities of phenolic constituents from Cordia sinensis" by Al-Musayeib N, Perveen S, Fatima I, Nasir M, Hussain A.(5)

6. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection
In the investigation of whether corn mint, a good source of natural phenols such as flavone glycosides and caffeic acid derivatives, extract would be beneficial against a universal respiratory tract pathogen, Chlamydia pneumoniae, infection, found that Linarin completely inhibited the growth at 100 μM. Inbred C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with C. pneumoniae K7. M. arvensis extract was given intraperitoneally once daily for 3 days prior to inoculation and continued for 10 days postinfection. The extract was able to diminish the inflammatory parameters related to C. pneumoniae infection and significantly (p = 0.019) lowered the number of C. pneumoniae genome equivalents detected by PCR at biologically relevant amounts, according to "Corn Mint ( Mentha arvensis ) Extract Diminishes Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Vitro and in Vivo" by Salin O, Törmäkangas L, Leinonen M, Saario E, Hagström M, Ketola RA, Saikku P, Vuorela H, Vuorela PM.(6)

7. Male Fertility
In the assessment of the adverse effect of lambda cyhalothrin (LC) on reproductive organs and fertility in male rats and the protective role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), found that treatment with CAPE improved the reduction in the sperm characteristics, LC-induced oxidative damage of testes and the testicular histopathological alterations. Results indicate that LC exerts significant harmful effects on the male reproductive system and that CAPE reduced the deleterious effects of LC on male fertility, according to "Protective role of caffeic acid on lambda cyhalothrin-induced changes in sperm characteristics and testicular oxidative damage in rats" by Abdallah FB, Fetou H, Zribi N, Fakhfakh F, Keskes L.(7)

8. Anti-HIV Activity
In the sudy of the phytochemical properties and anti-HIV activity of the phenolic isolates of the plateau medicinal plant DAPHNE ACUTILOBA Rehd. (Thymelaeceae), found that daphnenin ( 1) and caffeic acid N-octadecyl ester ( 13) showed definite anti-HIV activity with EC (50) values of 0.39 and 0.16 µg/mL, respectively, according to "Phenols with Anti-HIV Activity from Daphne acutiloba" by Huang SZ, Zhang XJ, Li XY, Jiang HZ, Ma QY, Wang PC, Liu YQ, Hu JM, Zheng YT, Zhou J, Zhao YX.(8)

9. Antihypertensive effect
In the investigation of the antihypertensive effect of Melothria maderaspatana leaf fractions on deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertensive rats and identification of compounds from the active fraction by GC-MS analysis, found that by GC-MS analysis, phytochemicals such as coumarin, vallinic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were identified in EAFM. In conclusion, the EAFM controls blood pressure in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats and reverts the metabolic alterations in magnesium, copper and zinc., according to "Antihypertensive effect of Melothria maderaspatana leaf fractions on DOCA-salt-induced hypertensive rats and identification of compounds by GC-MS analysis" by Veeramani C, Al-Numair KS, Chandramohan G, Alsaif MA, Alhamdan AA, Pugalendi KV.(9)

10. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22291063
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22258340
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22224485
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22192260
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22158590
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22073967
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22025501
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21989641
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21964566