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Wednesday, 6 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 9 Health Benefits of Salicylic acid

Salicylic acid is a phytochemical and a class of phenolic acid, belonging to the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found a bundantly in peppermint, licorice, peanut, wheat, etc.

Health benefits
1. Comedonal Acne
In the comparison of lipohydroxyacid and salicylic acid peels in subjects with comedonal acne, found that there was a statistically significant decrease of 55.6% and 48.5% from baseline to Day 98 in the mean number of noninflammatory lesions for the sides treated with lipohydroxyacid and salicylic acid peels, respectively (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the degree of reduction in noninflammatory lesions between the two peels. There was no significant reduction in the number of inflammatory lesions. Both peels were generally very well tolerated, according to "Randomized trial comparing a chemical peel containing a lipophilic hydroxy acid derivative of salicylic acid with a salicylic acid peel in subjects with comedonal acne" by Levesque A, Hamzavi I, Seite S, Rougier A, Bissonnette R.(1)

2. Acne vulgaris
In the evaluation of he efficacy and tolerability of the addition of SA treatment to CDP and BPO (SA and CDP + BPO) and compare it with CDP + BPO in patients with mild to moderate facial acne vulgaris.
found that the addition of SA to CDP + BPO treatment demonstrated significantly better and faster results in terms of reductions in acne lesion counts and well tolerated except for higher frequency of mild to moderate transient dryness, according to "Efficacy of the addition of salicylic acid to clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide combination for acne vulgaris" by Akarsu S, Fetil E, Yücel F, Gül E, Güneş AT.(2)

3. Breast cancer
In the determination of the effect of aspirin on the incidence of breast cancer metastasis, which is reported to occur in 50% of patients who have previously received chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery, found that ingestion of aspirin might significantly reduce the incidence of breast cancer metastasis in patients who have previously received anticancer therapies, according to "Acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) improves synthesis of maspin and lowers incidence of metastasis in breast cancer patients [corrected]" by Bhattacharyya M, Girish GV, Ghosh R, Chakraborty S, Sinha AK.(3)

4. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the examination of the mechanism whereby Methyl salicylate 2-O-b-D-lactoside (DL0309) exerts the anti-inflammatory effect, using the model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 cells, found that DL0309 exerts anti-inflammatory effects, by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppressing of the activation of NF-kB signaling pathway in LPS-treated macrophage cells. Therefore, DL0309 may have therapeutic potential for treating inflammatory diseases by regulating NF-κB pathway and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, according to "A novel naturally-occurring salicylic acid analogue acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappaB activity in RAW264.7 macrophages" by Zhang T, Sun L, Liu R, Zhang D, Lan X, Huang C, Xin W, Wang C, Zhang DM, Du G.(4)

5. Antileukemia Activity
In the study, in vitro screen of a focused library of SH2 domain binding salicylic acid-containing inhibitors (∼150) against STAT5, as well as against STAT3 and STAT1 proteins for SH2 domain selectivity, found that several potent (K(i) < 5 μM) and STAT5 selective (>3-fold specificity for STAT5 cf. STAT1 and STAT3) inhibitors, BP-1-107, BP-1-108, SF-1-087, and SF-1-088. Lead agents, evaluated in K562 and MV-4-11 human leukemia cells, showed potent induction of apoptosis (IC(50)'s ∼ 20 μM) which correlated with potent and selective suppression of STAT5 phosphorylation, as well as inhibition of STAT5 target genes cyclin D1, cyclin D2, C-MYC, and MCL-1. Moreover, lead agent BP-1-108 showed negligible cytotoxic effects in normal bone marrow cells not expressing activated STAT5 protein. Inhibitors identified in this study represent some of the most potent direct small molecule, nonphosphorylated inhibitors of STAT5 to date, according to "Small Molecule STAT5-SH2 Domain Inhibitors Exhibit Potent Antileukemia Activity" by Page BD, Khoury H, Laister RC, Fletcher S, Vellozo M, Manzoli A, Yue P, Turkson J, Minden MD, Gunning PT.(5)

6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects
In the evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic components of different solvent (absolute methanol, absolute ethanol, absolute acetone, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone and deionized water) extracts of leaves, flowers and bark of Gold Mohar
found that overall, 80% methanol extract produced from the leaves exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) higher antioxidant activity, with high phenolic contents (3.63 g GAE/100 g DW), total flavonoid contents (1.19 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of peroxidation (85.54%), DPPH scavenging capacity (IC(50) value 8.89 μg/mL) and reducing power (1.87). Similarly, this 80% methanol leaves extract also showed superior antimicrobial activity. HPLC analysis of the 80% methanol extracts for individual phenolics revealed the presence of gallic, protocatechuic and salicylic acid in leaves; gallic, protocatechuic, salicylic, trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acid in flowers, and gallic acid in bark as the main (amount > 1.50 mg/100 g DW) phenolic acids. Besides, small amounts ( < 1.50 mg/100 g DW) of some other phenolic acids such as sorbic, sinapic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxycinnamic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were also detected, according to "Antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes and phenolics of different solvent extracts from leaves, flowers and bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf]" by Shabir G, Anwar F, Sultana B, Khalid ZM, Afzal M, Khan QM, Ashrafuzzaman M.(6)

7. Antithrombotic effects
In the evaluation of three different antithrombotic treatments in women with antecedent of RPL, comparing the results in negative and positive to thrombophilic screening pregnant women, found that all three treatment regimens were significantly effective comparing live births against fetal losses. In 87 positive to thrombophilic screening pregnant women, the comparison of efficacy for the three regimens, shows that the therapy with LMWH or LMWH plus ASA are significantly protective against fetal losses with respect to ASA, which showed a high number of fetal losses (11 live births, 18 fetal losses), according to "Efficacy of three different antithrombotic regimens on pregnancy outcome in pregnant women affected by recurrent pregnancy loss" by Giancotti A, Torre RL, Spagnuolo A, D'Ambrosio V, Cerekja A, Piazze J, Chistolini A.(7)

8. Facial flat warts
In the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of glycolic acid 15% topical gel plus salicylic acid 2% in the treatment of recalcitrant facial flat warts, found that All the patients were clinically cured within eight weeks. Seven patients cleared in four weeks, and 13 patients cleared in eight weeks. No noticeable adverse events were related to the skin, according to "Glycolic Acid 15% plus salicylic Acid 2%: a new therapeutic pearl for facial flat warts" by Rodríguez-Cerdeira C, Sánchez-Blanco E.(8)

9. Etc.
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