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Monday, 4 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 9 Health Benefits of Piceatannol

Piceatannol is a phytochemical in the class of Stilbenoids, found abundantly in grapes, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Anti cancers
In the determination of the apoptotic effects of piceatannol and myricetin, naturally occurring polyphenols in red wine, alone or in combination, in two human cell lines: HL-60 (leukemia) and HepG2 (hepatoma), found that on the signaling pathways responsible for induction of HO-1 expression.found that piceatannol or myricetin alone induced apoptotic cell death in a concentration- and time-dependent manners in HL-60 cells. Furthermore, in combined treatment the percentage of apoptotic HL-60 cells was significantly higher. Nevertheless, the percentage of TUNEL positive HepG2 cells only was significant after piceatannol treatment and in combined treatment was even lower than in cells treated with piceatannol alone, according to "Selective apoptotic effects of piceatannol and myricetin in human cancer cells" by Morales P, Haza AI.(1)

2. Breast cancer
found that PIC inhibited migration and anchorage-independent growth of human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A) treated with the prototypic tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-aceate (TPA). PIC treatment suppressed the TPA-induced activation of NF-kappaB and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in MCF-10A cells. We speculate that an electrophilic quinone formed as a consequence of oxidation of PIC bearing the catechol moiety may directly interact with critical cysteine thiols of IKKbeta, thereby inhibiting its catalytic activity "Piceatannol, a catechol-type polyphenol, inhibits phorbol ester-induced NF-{kappa}B activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human breast epithelial cells: cysteine 179 of IKK{beta} as a potential target" by Son PS, Park SA, Na HK, Jue DM, Kim S, Surh YJ.(2)

3. Anti-inflammatory activities and cardioprotective effect
In the investigation of the modulation of inflammation by resveratrol and its metabolites by determining the expression and release of chemokine, eotaxin-1, in cultured human pulmonary artery endothelial cells, found that piceatannol showed potency similar to resveratrol. We propose that control of eotaxin-1 expression and release by proinflammatory cytokines in HPAEC may be considered as an in vitro model for screening and discovering polyphenols with anti-inflammatory activities and cardioprotective potentials, according to "Control of eotaxin-1 expression and release by resveratrol and its metabolites in culture human pulmonary artery endothelial cells" by Yang CJ, Lin CY, Hsieh TC, Olson SC, Wu JM.(3)

4. Alzheimer's disease
In the demonstration of the presence of autoantibodies to ecto-F1-ATPase (ASabs) in sera and cerebrospinal fluids from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), found that ASabs, unlike irrelevant antibodies, can increase cellular uptake of HDL, a risk factor for the development of AD, via a mechanism involving the prototypical function of ecto-F1-ATPase: the generation of ADP due to the hydrolysis of ATP. Piceatannol, a specific inhibitor ecto-F1-ATPase, completely hindered these effects. We hypothesize that ASabs could exert a pathogenetic role in AD, according to "Anti-ATP synthase autoantibodies from patients with Alzheimer's disease reduce extracellular HDL level" by Vacirca D, Barbati C, Scazzocchio B, Masella R, Rosano G, Malorni W, Ortona E.(4)

5. Prostate cancer
In the determination of whether piceatannol inhibits the lung metastasis of prostate cancer cells, MAT-Ly-Lu (MLL) rat prostate cancer cells expressing luciferase were injected into the tail veins of male nude mice, found that Piceatannol increased the protein levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 in a concentration-dependent fashion. Additionally, piceatannol inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3. Furthermore, piceatannol effected reductions in both basal and EGF-induced interleukin (IL)-6 secretion. An IL-6 neutralizing antibody inhibited EGF-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and EGF-stimulated migration of DU145 cells. Interleukin-6 treatment was also shown to enhance the secretion of uPA and VEGF, STAT3 phosphorylation and the migration of DU145 cells; these increases were suppressed by piceatannol. These results demonstrate that the inhibition of IL-6/STAT3 signaling may constitute a mechanism by which piceatannol regulates the expression of proteins involved in regulating the migration and invasion of DU145 cells, according to "Piceatannol inhibits migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells: possible mediation by decreased interleukin-6 signaling" by Kwon GT, Jung JI, Song HR, Woo EY, Jun JG, Kim JK, Her S, Park JH.(5)

6. Antiallergic and radical scavenging activities
In the assessment of the methanolic extract of the whole plant of Cyperus longus originating in Egypt and its antiallergic effect on ear passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions in mice,
found that Among the isolates, longusol B (IC(50)=96 µM), luteolin (3.0 µM), resveratrol (17 µM), piceatannol (24 µM), and cassigarols E (84 µM) and G (84 µM) were found to inhibit the release of β-hexosaminidase, as a marker of antigen-induced degranulations, in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells, accoridng to "Structures of novel norstilbene dimer, longusone A, and three new stilbene dimers, longusols A, B, and C, with antiallergic and radical scavenging activities from Egyptian natural medicine Cyperus longus" by Morikawa T, Xu F, Matsuda H, Yoshikawa M.(6)

7. Anti aging
In the review of the cellular senescence, characterized by cellular hypertrophy: cell growth in the absence of cell division, indicated that the genes that regulate this process can be activated or inactivated by numerous plant polyphenols such as resveratrol, quercetin, butein, fistein, piceatannol, curcumin. Many of these substances have been shown to lengthen the lifespan of invertebrates. Many of these compounds have other potential beneficial effects on lifespan as antiatherogenic or antineoplastic agents, according to "The potential influence of plant polyphenols on the aging process" by Cherniack EP.(7)

8. Melanogenesis and collagen synthesis
In the evaluation of The effect of passion fruit, the fruit of Passiflora edulis , on melanin inhibition and collagen synthesis, using cultured human melanoma and fibroblast cells, found that treatment of melanoma cells with PF-S led to inhibition of melanogenesis. In addition, the production of total soluble collagen was elevated in dermal fibroblast cells cultured in the presence of PF-S. PF-R and PF-P did not yield these effects. Furthermore, the removal of polyphenols from PF-S led to the abolishment of the effects described above. We discovered that piceatannol (3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene) is present in passion fruit seeds in large amounts and that this compound is the major component responsible for the PF-S effects observed on melanogenesis and collagen synthesis, according to "Extract of Passion Fruit ( Passiflora edulis ) Seed Containing High Amounts of Piceatannol Inhibits Melanogenesis and Promotes Collagen Synthesis" by Matsui Y, Sugiyama K, Kamei M, Takahashi T, Suzuki T, Katagata Y, Ito T.(8)

9. Colitis
In the investigation of the possible protective effects of resveratrol and piceatannol against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation in mouse colonic mucosa, found that oral administration of resveratrol or piceatannol (10 mg/kg body weight each) for 7 constitutive days attenuated the DSS-induced inflammatory injury, upregulation of iNOS expression, and activation of NF-kappaB, STAT3, and ERK, according to "Resveratrol and piceatannol inhibit iNOS expression and NF-kappaB activation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced mouse colitis" by Youn J, Lee JS, Na HK, Kundu JK, Surh YJ.(9)

10. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21935971
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20584749
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22254182
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21677380
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21497499
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20930408
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20829595
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20822151
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20155626