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Sunday, 3 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 9 Health Benefits of Zeaxanthin

Zeaxanthin is a phytochemincal of Yellow pigments in the class of Xanthophylls , belonging to the group of Carotenoids (tetraterpenoids), found abundantly in wolfberry, spinach, kale, turnip greens, maize, eggs, red pepper, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Alzheimer's disease
In the identification of an association between vascular comorbidities/vascular risk factors and plasma levels of antioxidant micronutrients in patients with AD found that Plasma levels of retinol, vitamin E, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and β-carotene were significantly lower in the AD  Plus group than in controls. Furthermore, vitamin A levels were correlated with MMSE scores and the levels of vitamin E, lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene were correlated with all neuropsychological tests.Conclusion: The depletion of circulating antioxidant micronutrients observed in AD  patients is associated with vascular comorbidities and risk factors. The vascular comorbidities of patients with AD should also be identified in light of the presence and degree of depletion of the antioxidant defense system of the organism, according to "[Influence of vascular comorbidities on the antioxidant defense system in Alzheimer's disease].[Article in German]" by Polidori MC, Stahl W, De Spirt S, Pientka L.(1)

2. Eye Health
In the article of summarises the current literature related to the bioactivity of these carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin), emphasising their effects and possible mechanisms of action in relation to human eye health, found that lutein and zeaxanthin are widely distributed in a number of body tissues and are uniquely concentrated in the retina and lens, indicating that each has a possible specific function in these two vital ocular tissues. Most of epidemiological studies and clinical trials support the notion that lutein and zeaxanthin have a potential role in the prevention and treatment of certain eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, cataract and retinitis pigmentosa. The biological mechanisms for the protective effects of these carotenoids may include powerful blue-light filtering activities and antioxidant properties, according to "Effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on aspects of eye health" by Ma L, Lin XM.(2)

3. Eye and skin health
In the reviews of the scientific literature pertaining to the effects that lutein and zeaxanthin exhibit in the human eye and skin, indicated that in the eye, lutein and zeaxanthin have been shown to filter high-energy wavelengths of visible light and act as antioxidants to protect against the formation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent free radicals. Human studies have demonstrated that lutein and zeaxanthin are present in the skin, and animal studies have provided evidence of significant efficacy against light-induced skin damage, especially the ultraviolet wavelengths, according to "Lutein and zeaxanthin in eye and skin health" by Roberts RL, Green J, Lewis B.(3)

4. Macular pigment level
In the comparison of the effect of lutein- and zeaxanthin-rich foods and supplements on macular pigment level (MPL) and serological markers of endothelial activation, inflammation and oxidation in healthy volunteers, concluded that in 8-week supplementation with lutein and zeaxanthin, whether as foods or as supplements, had no significant effect on MPL or serological markers of endothelial activation, inflammation and oxidation in healthy volunteers, but may improve MPL in the highest serum responders and in those with initially low MPL, according to "The effect of lutein- and zeaxanthin-rich foods v. supplements on macular pigment level and serological markers of endothelial activation, inflammation and oxidation: pilot studies in healthy volunteers" by Graydon R, Hogg RE, Chakravarthy U, Young IS, Woodside JV.(4)

5. Anti-inflammatory cytokine
In the investigation of the effects of xanthophylls (containing 40 % of lutein and 60 % of zeaxanthin) on proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF)) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10) expression of breeding hens and chicks, found that in ovo xanthophylls decreased proinflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and LITAF) in the liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-4 and IL-10) in the liver, jejunum and ileum mainly at 0-7 d after hatching. In ovo effects gradually vanished and dietary effects began to work during 1-2 weeks after hatching. Dietary xanthophylls modulated proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ) in the liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in the liver and jejunum mainly from 2 weeks onwards, according to "Supplementation of xanthophylls decreased proinflammatory and increased anti-inflammatory cytokines in hens and chicks" by Gao YY, Xie QM, Jin L, Sun BL, Ji J, Chen F, Ma JY, Bi YZ.(5)

6. Anti breast cancer
In the investigation of analyzed baseline and repeated serum measurements of carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols to assess their associations with postmenopausal breast cancer risk,
found that after multivariable adjustment, risk of invasive breast cancer was inversely associated with baseline serum alpha-carotene concentrations (hazard ratio for highest compared with the lowest tertile: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.90; P = 0.02) and positively associated with baseline lycopene (hazard ratio: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.22; P = 0.06). Analysis of repeated measurements indicated that alpha-carotene and beta-carotene were inversely associated with breast cancer and that gamma-tocopherol was associated with increased risk, according to "Longitudinal study of serum carotenoid, retinol, and tocopherol concentrations in relation to breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women" by Kabat GC, Kim M, Adams-Campbell LL, Caan BJ, Chlebowski RT, Neuhouser ML, Shikany JM, Rohan TE; WHI Investigators.(6)

7. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)
In the testing the hypothesis that higher intake of antioxidant nutrients from foods, supplements and FFQ-based ORAC values are associated with a lower risk of NHL in a clinic-based study of 603 incident cases and 1,007 frequency-matched controls, found that Dietary intake of α-tocopherol (OR = 0.50; p-trend = 0.0002), β-carotene (OR = 0.58; p-trend = 0.0005), lutein/zeaxanthin (OR = 0.62; p-trend = 0.005), zinc (OR = 0.54; p-trend = 0.003) and chromium (OR = 0.68; p-trend = 0.032) was inversely associated with NHL risk. Inclusion of supplement use had little impact on these associations. Total vegetables (OR = 0.52; p-trend < 0.0001), particularly green leafy (OR = 0.52; p-trend<0.0001) and cruciferous (OR = 0.68; p-trend = 0.045) vegetables, were inversely associated with NHL risk, according to "Food-frequency questionnaire-based estimates of total antioxidant capacity and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma" by Holtan SG, O'Connor HM, Fredericksen ZS, Liebow M, Thompson CA, Macon WR, Micallef IN, Wang AH, Slager SL, Habermann TM, Call TG, Cerhan JR.(7)

8. Cardioprotective effect
In the evaluation of the cardioprotective effect of VitaePro (70 mg/kg body weight, 21 days), a novel antioxidant mix of astaxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin in a rat ex vivo model of ischemia/reperfusion injury, found that oral ingestion of VitaePro protects myocardium from ischemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing oxidative stress and apoptosis, which may be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of cardiovascular complications. However, further in vivo animal and human intervention studies are warranted before establishing any recommendations about usage of VitaePro for human cardiovascular complications, according to "Cardioprotective Efficacy of a Novel Antioxidant Mix VitaePro Against Ex Vivo Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury" by Adluri RS, Thirunavukkarasu M, Zhan L, Maulik N, Svennevig K, Bagchi M, Maulik G.(8)

9. Asymptomatic early atherosclerosis
in the examination of the cross-sectional association of serum vitamin levels, the susceptibility of LDL to hemin-induced oxidation (lag phase to conjugated diene formation), and the malondialdehyde-LDL (MDA-LDL) to native LDL radioactivity binding ratio with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a measure of asymptomatic early atherosclerosis, found that after adjustment for potential confounders, only the inverse association of lutein plus zeaxanthin with asymptomatic atherosclerosis was maintained. This study supports a modest inverse association between circulating levels of some carotenoids, particularly lutein plus zeaxanthin, and carotid IMT, according to "Association of serum vitamin levels, LDL susceptibility to oxidation, and autoantibodies against MDA-LDL with carotid atherosclerosis. A case-control study. The ARIC Study Investigators. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities" by Iribarren C, Folsom AR, Jacobs DR Jr, Gross MD, Belcher JD, Eckfeldt JH.(9)

10. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22318842
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20355006
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19168000
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22313522
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22273061
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19474140
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22038870
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21960420
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9194770