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Sunday, 3 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 9 Health Benefits of Cryptoxanthin

Cryptoxanthin is a phytochemincal of Yellow pigments in the class of Xanthophylls , belonging to the group of Carotenoids (tetraterpenoids), found abundantly in orange, papaya, peaches, avocado, pea, grapefruit, kiwi, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Antioxidant effects
In the investigation of the biological properties of beta-cryptoxanthin, a common carotenoid, in cell culture model systems, using the comet assay to measure DNA damage, found that At low concentrations, close to those found in plasma, beta-cryptoxanthin does not itself cause damage, but protects transformed human cells (HeLa and Caco-2) from damage induced by H(2)O(2) or by visible light in the presence of a photosensitizer. In addition, it has a striking effect on DNA repair, measured in different ways. Incubation of H(2)O(2)-treated cells with beta-cryptoxanthin led to a doubling of the rate of rejoining of strand breaks and had a similar effect on the rate of removal of oxidized purines by base excision repair, according to "The carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin stimulates the repair of DNA oxidation damage in addition to acting as an antioxidant in human cells" by Lorenzo Y, Azqueta A, Luna L, Bonilla F, Domínguez G, Collins AR.(1)

2. Anti cancers
In the demonstration of CHRP and/or MJs (a pulp (CHRP) and citrus juices (MJ2 and MJ5) from a satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Mar.) juice (MJ)) and theirs effects on rat colon, rat tongue, and mouse lung tumorigenesis,m found that gavage with CHRP resulted in an increase of activities of detoxifying enzymes in the liver, colon, and tongue rats'. CHRP and MJs were also able to suppress the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory enzymes in the target tissues. This paper describes the findings of our in vivo preclinical experiments to develop a strategy for cancer chemoprevention of colon, tongue, and lung neoplasms by use of CHRP and MJs, according to "Cancer chemoprevention by citrus pulp and juices containing high amounts of β-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin" by Tanaka T, Tanaka T, Tanaka M, Kuno T.(2)

3. Pulmonary tumorigenesis
In the investigation of the inhibitory effect of mandarin juice rich in beta-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin on lung cancer, found that treatments with MJ, MJ2, and MJ5 reduced the incidence of lung tumors and the inhibition by MJ5 (29% reduction) was statistically significant (P<0.05). MJs treatment lowered the multiplicity of lung neoplasms without statistical significance. Immunohistochemically, MJs, especially MJ5, reduced proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive index in the lung tumors without affecting PCNA index in hyperplastic alveolar cell lesions, according to "Inhibitory effect of mandarin juice rich in beta-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced pulmonary tumorigenesis in mice" by Kohno H, Taima M, Sumida T, Azuma Y, Ogawa H, Tanaka T.(3)

4. Renal cell carcinoma
In the assessment of the association between renal cell cancer (RCC) and intake of fruit, vegetables and nutrients examined in a population-based case-control study of 323 cases and 1827 controls; dietary intake was obtained using a mailed questionnaire, found that β-Cryptoxanthin and lycopene were also associated with decreased risks, but when both were included in a mutually adjusted backwards stepwise regression model, only β-cryptoxanthin remained significant (OR 0·5; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·8). When other micronutrients and types of fibre were investigated together, only vegetable fibre and β-cryptoxanthin had significant trends (P < 0·01) (OR 0·6; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·9) (OR 0·5; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·9), respectively, according to "Fruit, vegetables, fibre and micronutrients and risk of US renal cell carcinoma" by Brock KE, Ke L, Gridley G, Chiu BC, Ershow AG, Lynch CF, Graubard BI, Cantor KP.(4)

5. Adiposity
In the identification of Oral administration of β-CRX and the effect on the mechanism, obese model mouse, TSOD used in the study, found that DNA microarray analysis strongly indicates that the oral administration of β-CRX represses the inflammatory cytokine secretion and improves the lipid metabolism and the energy consumption. It also suggests these effects are partly mediated by PPAR-α, not only lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation control but possibly internal circadian clock modulation, according to "Prevention of Adiposity by the Oral Administration of β-Cryptoxanthin" by Takayanagi K.(5)

6. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)
In the evaluation of the potential association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) by histologic, indicated that for nutrients, the risk of NHL overall was inversely associated with a higher intake of β-cryptoxanthin (OR = 0.6; CI = 0.4-0.9), magnesium (OR = 0.4; CI = 0.2-0.6), potassium (OR = 0.5; CI = 0.3-1.0), and fiber (OR = 0.6; CI = 0.3-1.0), but positively associated with a higher intake of retinol (OR = 1.7; CI = 1.1-2.8). Intakes of vitamin E, magnesium, and potassium were inversely associated with the risk of DLBCL, according to "Dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma" by Chiu BC, Kwon S, Evens AM, Surawicz T, Smith SM, Weisenburger DD.(6)

7. Anti lung inflammation, oxidative damage, and squamous metaplasia
In the evaluation of the effects of β-cryptoxanthin supplementation on cigarette smoke-induced squamous metaplasia, inflammation, and changes in protein levels of proinflammatory cytokine [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)] and transcription factors [nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1)], as well as on smoke-induced oxidative DNA damage [8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] in the lung tissue of ferrets, found that β-Cryptoxanthin supplementation dose-dependently increased plasma and lung β-cryptoxanthin levels in ferrets, whereas cigarette smoke exposure lowered plasma and lung β-cryptoxanthin levels. β-Cryptoxanthin at both doses significantly decreased smoke-induced lung squamous metaplasia and inflammation. β-Cryptoxanthin also substantially reduced smoke-elevated TNFα levels in alveolar, bronchial, bronchiolar, and bronchial serous/mucous gland epithelial cells and in lung macrophages. Moreover, β-cryptoxanthin decreased smoke-induced activation of NF-κB, expression of AP-1 and levels of 8-OHdG. The beneficial effects of β-cryptoxanthin were stronger for high-dose β-cryptoxanthin than for low-dose β-cryptoxanthin, according to "β-Cryptoxanthin supplementation prevents cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation, oxidative damage, and squamous metaplasia in ferrets" by Liu C, Bronson RT, Russell RM, Wang XD.(7)

8. Insulin resistance
In the investigation of a fat-soluble extract from persimmon peel (PP) and fed type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats an AIN-93G rodent diet supplemented with persimmon peel extract (PP diet) for 12 weeks, found that compared with the control AIN-93G diet, the PP diet significantly reduced plasma glutamic-pyruvate transaminase activity, with accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in the liver. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the PP diet altered hepatic gene expression profiles. In particular, expression of insulin signaling pathway-related genes was significantly enriched in differentially expressed gene sets. Moreover, Western blotting analysis showed an increase in insulin receptor beta tyrosine phosphorylation in rats fed the PP diet, according to "Hepatic gene expression of the insulin signaling pathway is altered by administration of persimmon peel extract: a DNA microarray study using type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats" by Izuchi R, Nakai Y, Takahashi H, Ushiama S, Okada S, Misaka T, Abe K.(8)

9. Anti Breast cancer
In the study consisting of 604 breast cancer cases and 626 controls with prospectively measured circulating carotenoid levels and mammographic density in the Nurses' Health Study,
found that no evidence that circulating carotenoids are inversely associated with mammographic density. However, mammographic density significantly modified the association between total circulating carotenoids and breast cancer (P heterogeneity = 0.008). Overall, circulating total carotenoids were inversely associated with breast cancer risk (P trend = 0.01). Among women in the highest tertile of mammographic density, total carotenoids were associated with a 50% reduction in breast cancer risk (odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.8). In contrast, there was no inverse association between carotenoids and breast cancer risk among women with low mammographic density. Similarly, among women in the highest tertile of mammographic density, high levels of circulating alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein/zeaxanthin were associated with a significant 40% to 50% reduction in breast cancer risk (P trend < 0.05), according to "Circulating carotenoids, mammographic density, and subsequent risk of breast cancer" by Tamimi RM, Colditz GA, Hankinson SE.(9)

10. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19056931
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22174562
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11689289
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22186835
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22131983
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21695384
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21421799
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21370910
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19934322