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Tuesday, 5 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 8 Health Benefits of Pinoresino

Pinoresino is a phytochemical in the class of Lignans (phytoestrogens), found abundantly in sesame seed, brassica vegetables, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Hepatoprotective effect
In the investigation of the hepatoprotective effects of pinoresinol, a lignan isolated from Forsythiae Fructus, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with vehicle or pinoresinol (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) 30 min before and 2 h after CCl4 (20 microl/kg) injection, found that pinoresinol ameliorates CCl4)-induced acute liver injury, and this protection is likely due to anti-oxidative activity and down-regulation of inflammatory mediators through inhibition of NF-kappaB and AP-1, according to"Hepatoprotective effect of pinoresinol on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in mice" by Kim HY, Kim JK, Choi JH, Jung JY, Oh WY, Kim DC, Lee HS, Kim YS, Kang SS, Lee SH, Lee SM.(1)

2. Colon cancer
In the assessment of the anticancer properties of EVOO phenolic extracts using in vitro models,
found that pinoresinol-rich EVOO extracts have potent chemopreventive properties and specifically upregulate the ATM-p53 cascade. This result was achieved at substantially lower concentrations in EVOO than with purified pinoresinol, indicating a possible synergic effect between the various polyphenols in olive oil, according to "Chemopreventive properties of pinoresinol-rich olive oil involve a selective activation of the ATM-p53 cascade in colon cancer cell lines" by Fini L, Hotchkiss E, Fogliano V, Graziani G, Romano M, De Vol EB, Qin H, Selgrad M, Boland CR, Ricciardiello L.(2)

3. Hypertension
In a controlled clinical trial conducted to evaluate an aqueous bark extract of Eucommia standardized to eight percent pinoresinol di-beta-D-glucoside (PG) for BP reduction in humans, found that the standardized Eucommia extract reduced BP and has beta-adrenergic blocking activity. Eucommia may be an appropriate nutraceutical intervention for prehypertension, according to "A clinical trial testing the safety and efficacy of a standardized Eucommia ulmoides oliver bark extract to treat hypertension" by
Greenway F, Liu Z, Yu Y, Gupta A.(3)

4. Antioxidants
In the isolation of the antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH˙and ABTS·+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1), isovanillin (2), 6-deoxyjacareubin (3), scopoletin (4), syringaldehyde (5), pinoresinol (6), p-coumaric acid (7), ficusol (8), balanophonin (9) and ethamivan (10), which possess significant antioxidant activities, found that The relative order of DPPH· scavenging capacity for these compounds was ascorbic acid (reference) > 6 > 1 > 8 > 10 > 9 > 3 > 4 > 7 > 5 > 2, and that of ABTS·+ scavenging capacity was 5 > 7 > 1 > 10 > 4 > 6 > 8 > 2 > Trolox (reference compound) > 3 > 9. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of cassava, according to "Antioxidant phenolic compounds of cassava (Manihot esculenta) from Hainan" by Yi B, Hu L, Mei W, Zhou K, Wang H, Luo Y, Wei X, Dai H.(4)

5. Antifungal effect
In the investigation of the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of (+)-pinoresinol, a biphenolic compound isolated from the herb Sambucus williamsii,used in traditional medicine.
found that the antifungal mechanism of (+)-pinoresinol, we conducted fluorescence experiments on the human pathogen Candida albicans indicated that the (+)-pinoresinol caused damage to the fungal plasma membrane, according to "Antifungal effect of (+)-pinoresinol isolated from Sambucus williamsii" by Hwang B, Lee J, Liu QH, Woo ER, Lee DG.(5)

6. Anti-proliferative effect
Cytotoxicity-guided fractionation and purification of MeOH extract from Chionanthus retusus Lindl. et Paxton resulted in the isolation of compounds, including phillygenin (1), scopoletin (2), pinoresinol (3), kaempferol (4), aromadendrin (5), 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (6), 3,3',5,5',7-pentahydroxyflavanone (7), luteolin (8), quercetin (9), apigenin (10), chrysoeriol (11), phillyrin (12), oleuropein (13), (7R,8R)-guaiacylglycerol (14). All compounds except for 12 and 13 were isolated for the first time from this plant and genus Chionanthus, found that anti-proliferative effect of isolated compounds were evaluated by the sulforhodamin B assay against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15). Compounds 4 and 8-10 were significantly active with ED50 values of 1.84-6.35 microg/mL. Also, compounds 1, 3, 5 and 7 revealed cytotoxic effects at concentrations below 30 microg/mL, according to "Cytotoxic phenolic compounds from Chionanthus retusus" by Kwak JH, Kang MW, Roh JH, Choi SU, Zee OP.(6)

7. Anti inflammatory effects
In the assessment of the anti inflammatory effect of 3 lots of hierba santa: Cestrum auriculatum (herb 1 and herb 2) and C. hediundinum (herb 3), found that herbs 1-3 showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in the in vivo writhing inhibition test in mouse and inhibited prostaglandin E(1)-, E(2)-, or ACh-induced contractions of guinea pig ileum in the Magnus method. Activity-based separation of each extract yielded cestrumines A and B, cestrusides A and B, a mixture of (+)- and (-)-pinoresinol glucosides, nicotiflorin, rutin, sinapoyl glucose, ursolic acid, beta-sitosteryl glucoside, and 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dihydroxyphenyl-beta-D: -glucopyranoside, according to "Anti-inflammatory and analgesic components from "hierba santa," a traditional medicine in Peru" by Kawano M, Otsuka M, Umeyama K, Yamazaki M, Shiota T, Satake M, Okuyama E.(7)

8. Antimalarial activity
In the evaluation of selected phytochemicals intake and breast cancer (BC) risk in Mexican women, found that among postmenopausal women, high dietary intake of flavonols and flavones was associated with a significant reduction of BC risk (high v. low tertile: OR = 0.21, 95 % CI 0.07, 0.60, P for trend = 0.004 and OR = 0.29, 95 % CI 0.10, 0.82, P for trend = 0.025, respectively); consumption of lignans (lariciresinol and pinoresinol) showed a similar effect, but only among premenopausal women (high v. low tertile: OR = 0.32, 95 % CI 0.10, 0.99, P for trend = 0.051 and OR = 0.19, 95 % CI 0.06, 0.62, P for trend = 0.006, respectively), according to "Dietary consumption of phytochemicals and breast cancer risk in Mexican women" by Torres-Sanchez L, Galvan-Portillo M, Wolff MS, Lopez-Carrillo L.(8)

9. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20093790
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17999988
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214253
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22157579
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20657496
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20162394
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19067116
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18647433