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Saturday, 2 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 8 Health Benefits of Campesterol

Campesterol is a phytochemincal in the class of Phytosterols, belonging to the group of Lipids, found abundantly in banana, pomegranate, pepper, coffee, grapefruit, cucumber, onion, oat, potato, etc.

Health benefits
1. Cardiovascular diseases
In the review of the studies published between January 1950 and April 2010 that reported either risk ratios (RR) of CVD in relation to serum sterol concentrations (either absolute or expressed as ratios relative to total cholesterol) or serum sterol concentrations in CVD cases and controls separately, indicated that 17 studies using different designs (four case-control, five nested case-control, three cohort, five cross-sectional) involving 11 182 participants. Eight studies reported RR of CVD and 15 studies reported serum concentrations in CVD cases and controls. Funnel plots showed evidence for publication bias indicating small unpublished studies with non-significant findings. Neither of our meta-analyses suggested any relationship between serum concentrations of sitosterol and campesterol (both absolute concentrations and ratios to cholesterol) and risk of CVD. Our systematic review and meta-analysis did not reveal any evidence of an association between serum concentrations of plant sterols and risk of CVD, according to "Plant sterols and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis" by Genser B, Silbernagel G, De Backer G, Bruckert E, Carmena R, Chapman MJ, Deanfield J, Descamps OS, Rietzschel ER, Dias KC, März W.(1)

2. Cholesterol
In the investigation of Phytosterols (PSs),a group of plant derived steroid alcohols, with wide occurrence in vegetables and fruits, indicated that Structural resemblance of PSs with cholesterol enables them to displace low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the human intestine. Protective effects of PSs against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), colon and breast cancer developments have been widely documented. Several reports have been published on the potential dietary intake of common PSs, such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, and their safety concerns. Ability of PSs to reduce cholesterol levels and risks associated with heart problems has made them a class of favorite food supplement, according to "Phytosterols: perspectives in human nutrition and clinical therapy' by Choudhary SP, Tran LS.(2)

3. Weight loss
In the assessment of the effects of 2 y of weight loss achieved with various diet regimens on phytosterols (markers of intestinal cholesterol absorption), lanosterol (marker of de novo cholesterol synthesis), and changes in apolipoprotein concentrations, found that a significant upregulation of the markers of cholesterol absorption (campesterol: +16.8%, P < 0.001) and a downregulation of the markers of cholesterol synthesis (lanosterol: -16.5%, P = 0.008) during the active weight-loss phase (first 6 mo, weight loss of 5%, 6%, and 10% in the 3 diet groups, respectively), followed by a rebound (campesterol: -6.2%, P = 0.045; lanosterol: +43.7%, P < 0.001) during the next 18 mo (weight gain of 1%, 1%, and 2% in the 3 diet groups, respectively). HDL cholesterol continuously increased during the study (17.0%, P < 0.001), whereas LDL cholesterol remained constant. At the end of the 24-mo follow-up period, campesterol (P < 0.001) and lanosterol (P = 0.016) amounts were significantly higher than baseline values, according to "Effects of a 2-y dietary weight-loss intervention on cholesterol metabolism in moderately obese men" by Leichtle AB, Helmschrodt C, Ceglarek U, Shai I, Henkin Y, Schwarzfuchs D, Golan R, Gepner Y, Stampfer MJ, Blüher M, Stumvoll M, Thiery J, Fiedler GM.(3)

4. Anti cancers
In the investigation of extract of Typhonium giganteum Engl. (BaiFuzi) by GC-MS, including the four major components [β-sitosterol (40.22%), campesterol (18.45%), n-hexadecanoic acid (9.52%) and (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (8.15%)] found that the extract caused down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, and up-regulation of Bax expression. Moreover, caspase-3 and caspase-9 protease activity significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results showed that the SFE-CO(2) extract from T. giganteum Engl. tubers induces apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells involving a ROS-mediated mitochondrial signalling pathway, according to "SFE-CO2 extract from Typhonium giganteum Engl. tubers, induces apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells involvement of a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway" by Li Q, Jiang C, Zu Y, Song Z, Zhang B, Meng X, Qiu W, Zhang L.(4)

5. Lung cancer
In the evaluation of the inhibitory effect of Typhonium blumei (Tb) extract on the viability of different cancer cells and the apoptotic effect of this extract on A549 lung cancer cells, indicated that dibutyl phthalate, α-linolenic acid, phytol, campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were the major bioactive ingredients of Tb extract. Although all these compounds had good anti-proliferative effects on A549 cells, campesterol (IC(50)=2.2 μM for 24h treatment) and β-sitosterol (IC(50)=1.9 μM for 24h treatment) displayed the greatest inhibitory activity, according to "Typhonium blumei extract inhibits proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells via induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis" by
Hsu HF, Huang KH, Lu KJ, Chiou SJ, Yen JH, Chang CC, Houng JY.(5)

6. Cognitive effects
In the investigation of whether plant sterols in the brain are associated with alterations in brain cholesterol homeostasis and subsequently with brain functions, found that plant sterol accumulation resulted in decreased levels of desmosterol (P<0.01) and 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (P<0.01) in the hippocampus, the brain region important for learning and memory functions, and increased lanosterol levels (P<0.01) in the cortex. However, Abcg5-/- and Abcg5+/+ displayed no differences in memory functions or in anxiety and mood related behavior. The swimming speed of the Abcg5-/- mice was slightly higher compared to Abcg5+/+ mice (P<0.001), according to "Cerebral accumulation of dietary derivable plant sterols does not interfere with memory and anxiety related behavior in Abcg5-/- mice" by Vanmierlo T, Rutten K, van Vark-van der Zee LC, Friedrichs S, Bloks VW, Blokland A, Ramaekers FC, Sijbrands E, Steinbusch H, Prickaerts J, Kuipers F, Lütjohann D, Mulder M.(6)

7. Antibacterial activity and mutagenicity
In the investigation of leaves of Alchornea triplinervia led to the isolation of the known substances quercetin, quercetin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, amentoflavone, brevifolin carboxylic acid, gallic acid, and methyl gallate from the methanolic extract, and stigmasterol, campesterol, sitosterol, lupeol, friedelan-3-ol, and friedelan-3-one from the chloroform extract, found that the methanolic extract showed antibacterial activity and mutagenicity, and is promising activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 62.5 microg/mL) and was slightly mutagenic in vitro and in vivo at the highest concentrations tested (1335 mg/kg b.w.), according to "Phenolic compounds in leaves of Alchornea triplinervia: anatomical localization, mutagenicity, and antibacterial activity" by Calvo TR, Demarco D, Santos FV, Moraes HP, Bauab TM, Varanda EA, Cólus IM, Vilegas W.(7)

8. Weight loss, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and LDL-apoB-100 metabolism
In a 16-week intervention trial of a hypocaloric, low-fat diet plus 10 mg/day ezetimibe (n = 15) versus a hypocaloric, low-fat diet alone (n = 10) on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content, plasma high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adipocytokines, and fetuin-A concentrations and apolipoprotein (apo)B-100 kinetics in obese subjects, found that compared with weight loss alone, ezetimibe plus weight loss significantly (all P < 0.05) decreased IHTG content (-18%), plasma hs-CRP (-53%), interleukin-6 (-24%), LDL cholesterol (-18%), campesterol (-59%), and apoB-100 (-14%) levels, with a significant increase in plasma lathosterol concentrations (+43%). The LDL-apoB-100 concentration also significantly fell with ezetimibe plus weight loss (-12%), chiefly owing to an increase in the corresponding fractional catabolic rate (+29%) and suggested that Addition of ezetimibe to a moderate weight loss diet in obese subjects can significantly improve hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and LDL-apoB-100 metabolism, according to "Effect of ezetimibe on hepatic fat, inflammatory markers, and apolipoprotein B-100 kinetics in insulin-resistant obese subjects on a weight loss diet" by Chan DC, Watts GF, Gan SK, Ooi EM, Barrett PH.(8)

9. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22334625
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21864283
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21940598
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21959296
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21470575
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21431910
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20839624
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20185740