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Sunday, 3 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods -7 Health Benefits of Canthaxanthin

Canthaxanthin is a phytochemincal of Yellow pigments in the class of Xanthophylls , belonging to the group of Carotenoids (tetraterpenoids), found abundantly in paprika, green algae, crustaceans, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Photoprotective effect
In the investigation of the carotenoids astaxanthin (AX), canthaxanthin (CX) and beta-carotene (betaC) delivered to HDF 24 h before exposure to UVA, found that Astaxanthin exhibited a pronounced photoprotective effect and counteracted all of the above-mentioned UVA-induced alterations to a significant extent. beta-Carotene only partially prevented the UVA-induced decline of catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, but it increased membrane damage and stimulated HO-1 expression, according to "Astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and beta-carotene differently affect UVA-induced oxidative damage and expression of oxidative stress-responsive enzymes' by Camera E, Mastrofrancesco A, Fabbri C, Daubrawa F, Picardo M, Sies H, Stahl W.(1)

2. Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory neuroprotective effects
In the examination of the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of astaxanthin (AX) and canthaxanthin (CX). PC12 cells pretreated with AX or CX at 10 or 20 muM, and followed by exposure of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) to induce cell injury, found that the pretreatments from AX or CX significantly retained GPX and catalase activities, and decreased MDA and ROS formations (P < 0.05). H(2)O(2) or MPP(+) treatment significantly decreased Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, elevated caspase-3 activity and levels of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (P < 0.05); and the pretreatments from these agents significantly restored Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, suppressed caspase-3 activity and release of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha (P < 0.05). Based on the observed antioxidative and anti-inflammatory protection from AX and CX, these 2 compounds were potent agents against neurodegenerative disorder, according to "Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in nerve growth factor differentiated PC12 cells' by Chan KC, Mong MC, Yin MC.(2)

3. Hypocholesterolmic and antioxidant properties
In the investigation of the effect of feeding partially saturated canthaxanthin (PSC), purified from Aspergillus carbonarius mutant, using four groups of female albino rats (n=6) for 4 weeks, found that PSC included in the diet significantly decreased cholesterol in blood. There was 44.75% and 60.54% decrease in LDL-cholesterol in rats fed with 50 and 100 ppm carotenoid. Hepatic ascorbic acid content increased by 44.59% in rats fed with 50 ppm PSC. Dietary PSC at 250 ppm lowered lipid peroxides by 19.49%. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione transferase and catalase were significantly higher in serum and liver of PSC fed rats compared to the controls. The results suggested that PSC feeding can induce hypocholesterolmic and antioxidant properties in rats, according to "Antioxidant and lipid peroxidation activities in rats fed with Aspergillus carbonarius carotenoid" by Kumar A, Srikanta AH, Muthukumar SP, Sukumaran UK, Govindaswamy V.(3)

4. Oral carcinogenesis
In the investigation of the chemopreventive effects of two xanthophylls, astaxanthin (AX) and canthaxanthin (CX) on oral carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) in male F344 rats, found that AX and CX are possible chemopreventers for oral carcinogenesis, and such effects may be partly due to suppression of cell proliferation, according to "Chemoprevention of rat oral carcinogenesis by naturally occurring xanthophylls, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin" by Tanaka T, Makita H, Ohnishi M, Mori H, Satoh K, Hara A.(4)

5. Antiradical effects
In the study of the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) antiradical mechanism of of 13 carotenoids (CAR) and vitamin E are explored, by assessing CAR-H bond dissociation energy, found that C4 or C4' is not always the reactive position when it is unsubstituted and also that CAR without H atoms in the 4 position may be as effective against free radicals as other CAR with H atoms in C4 and C4'. Lutein is the most effective antiradical for the purpose of hydrogen abstraction, whereas the least effective antiradical for this process is canthaxanthin, which is one of the reddest CAR. Vitamin E is not as effective as most of the yellow CAR but may be a better antiradical than canthaxanthin, according to "Antiradical power of carotenoids and vitamin E: testing the hydrogen atom transfer mechanism" by Martínez A, Barbosa A.(5)

6. Prostate cancer
In the investigation the effect of partially saturated canthaxanthin purified from Aspergillus carbonarius and its effect on prostate cancer cell line, found that nuclear magnetic resonance analyses characterizing the pigment as a partially saturated canthaxanthin, containing beta-ionone end rings, suggested its application as a retinoid. When tested for this property in retinoic acid receptor expressing prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, the fungal partially saturated canthaxanthin induced apoptosis, according to "Partially saturated canthaxanthin purified from Aspergillus carbonarius induces apoptosis in prostrate cancer cell line" by Kumaresan N, Sanjay KR, Venkatesh KS, Kadeppagari RK, Vijayalakshmi G, Umesh-Kumar S.(6)

7. Abdominal obesity
In the investigation of the relationship between abdominal adiposity and serum levels of carotenoids, found that in females, High waist circumference was associated with low levels of serum canthaxanthin (OR=2.00, 95% CI=1.26-3.19) and beta-carotene (BC) (OR=2.01, 95% CI=1.23-3.28). High waist hip ratio was also associated with low levels of serum alpha- carotene and BC (OR=2.44, 95% CI=1.49-4.03, and OR =1.97, 95% CI=1.20-3.28, respectively). Similar results were obtained when body mass index was added to confounding factors. In males, however, there were no significant associations between obesity indices and serum levels of carotenoids, according to "Chemoprevention of rat oral carcinogenesis by naturally occurring xanthophylls, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin" by Tanaka T, Makita H, Ohnishi M, Mori H, Satoh K, Hara A.(7)

9. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18803658
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19895474
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21925232
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7664280
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19367913
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18542946
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16698146