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Saturday, 2 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 19 Health Benefits of Omega-3, 6,9 Fatty Acids

Omega-3, 6,9 fatty acids are phytochemincals in the class of Lipids, found abundantly in dark-green leafy vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Vascular smooth muscle tone
In the investigation of the comparative effects of omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9 fatty acids on vascular smooth muscle tone, showed that Docosahexaenoic acid (1-255 microM) and eicosapentaenoic acid (31-255 microM) inhibited phenylephrine-induced contractions, (8-63%) and (20-65%), respectively, which were not altered by indomethacin, NDGA, or by removal of the endothelium. Linoleic acid (18:2n6) and arachidonic acid (20:4n6) also induced significant relaxation. Therefore, fatty acid-induced relaxation of the rat aorta is specific to polyunsaturated fatty acids, 20:5n3, 22:6n3, 18:2n6 and 20:4n6, according to "Effects of omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9 fatty acids on vascular smooth muscle tone" by Engler MB.(1)

2. Breast cancer
In the review of the literature concerning the role of fatty acids and eicosanoid synthesis inhibitors in breast carcinoma, indicated that The omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), primarily linoleic acid, promote breast cancer tumorigenesis and tumor cell proliferation directly and indirectly via increased synthesis of cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-catalyzed products. The omega-3 PUFAs, primarily docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), suppress breast carcinoma tumorigenesis and tumor cell proliferation, although the effect of DHA may be partly ascribed to increased amounts of EPA derived from DHA. Both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors suppress tumorigenesis and/or tumor proliferation, with the latter being more active. Thus, arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids play an important role in breast cancer, and the balance of the various eicosanoids may be a critical determinant of cell proliferation, according to "The role of fatty acids and eicosanoid synthesis inhibitors in breast carcinoma" by Noguchi M, Rose DP, Earashi M, Miyazaki I.(2)

3. Regulatory effects
In the examination of the effects of individual n-6 (linoleic acid) and n-3 (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acid) PUFAs on plasma lipid levels and on the major transport processes that determine plasma LDL concentrations, found that Rats were fed a semisynthetic cholesterol-free diet supplemented with 4% (by wt) linoleic, alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acid for 2 weeks. Dietary eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids lowered plasma triglyceride concentrations by 62% and 52%, respectively, and lowered plasma cholesterol concentrations by 54% and 43%, respectively. In contrast, dietary linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids had relatively little effect on plasma triglyceride or cholesterol concentrations. Dietary eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids increased hepatic LDL receptor activity by 72% and 58%, respectively, and reduced the rate of LDL cholesterol entry into plasma by 36% and 30%, respectively, according to "Regulatory effects of individual n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on LDL transport in the rat" by Spady DK.(3)

4. Systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol
In the ccomparison of the cardiovascular risk-reduction potential of three major polyunsaturated fatty acids in a double-blind study. showed that for the diet supplemented with EPA plus DHA compared with the linoleic acid diet systolic blood pressure fell 5.1 mm Hg (p = 0.01); plasma triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol fell by 39% (p = 0.001) and 49% (p = 0.01), respectively; and LDL cholesterol rose by 9% (p = 0.01). There were no significant changes with the diet supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid. The net effect on cardiovascular risk therefore is complex and the systolic blood pressure reduction was substantial, according to "n-3 fatty acids of marine origin lower systolic blood pressure and triglycerides but raise LDL cholesterol compared with n-3 and n-6 fatty acids from plants" by Kestin M, Clifton P, Belling GB, Nestel PJ.(4)

5. Cardiovascular effects
In the comparison of the effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3) to those of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy elderly subjects, found that Both n-3 fatty acid diets did not change concentrations of total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol and apoA-1 when compared with the oleic acid-rich diet. However, after the EPA/DHA-rich diet, LDL-cholesterol increased by 0.39 mmol/l (P = 0.0323, 95% CI (0.030, 0.780 mmol/l)) when compared with the ALA-rich diet. Intake of EPA/DHA also increased apoB concentrations by 14 mg/dl (P = 0.0031, 95% CI (4, 23 mg/dl)) and 12 mg/dl (P = 0.005, 95% CI (3, 21 mg/dl)) versus the oleic acid and ALA-rich diet, respectively. Except for an EPA/DHA-induced increase in tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) of 14.6% (P = 0.0184 versus ALA diet, 95% CI (1.5, 18.3%)), changes in markers of hemostasis and endothelial integrity did not reach statistical significance following consumption of the two n-3 fatty acid diets, according to "Effects of alpha-linolenic acid versus those of EPA/DHA on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy elderly subjects" by Goyens PL, Mensink RP.(5)

6. Cognitive effects
In the assessment of the cognitive effects of fish oil supplementation at college age, hypothesizing benefits on affect, executive control, inhibition, and verbal learning and memory. College-aged participants, indicated that the benefits of n-3 PUFA on RAVLT performance derived more from depreciated placebo performance than improved performance due to fish oil. The placebo gain on TMT performance likely derived from a learning effect. Together, these results present limited cognitive benefits of n-3 PUFA at college age; however, the treatment may have been subtherapeutic, with a larger sample needed to generalize these results, according to "Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition in a college-aged population" by Karr JE, Grindstaff TR, Alexander JE.(6)

7. Depression-related cognition
In the investigation of the effects of n-3 PUFA on depression-relevant cognitive functioning in healthy individuals, found that The n-3 PUFA group made fewer risk-averse decisions than the placebo group. This difference appeared only in non-normative trials of the decision-making test, and was not accompanied by increased impulsiveness. N-3 PUFAs improved scores on the control/perfectionism scale of the cognitive reactivity measure. No effects were found on the other cognitive tasks and no consistent effects on mood were observed. The present findings indicate that n-3 PUFA supplementation may have a selective effect on risky decision making in healthy volunteers, which is unrelated to impulsiveness, according to "Omega-3 fatty acids (fish-oil) and depression-related cognition in healthy volunteers" by Antypa N, Van der Does AJ, Smelt AH, Rogers RD.(7)

8. Mental illness
In the review of the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determine whether omega-3 PUFA are likely to be efficacious in these psychiatric disorders, found that for schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder we found little evidence of a robust clinically relevant effect. In the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders, most trials showed at most small benefits over placebo. A limited meta-analysis of these trials suggested that benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be greater in a classroom setting than at home. Some evidence indicates that omega-3 PUFA may reduce symptoms of anxiety although the data is preliminary and inconclusive. The most convincing evidence for beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA is to be found in mood disorders. A meta-analysis of trials involving patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder provided evidence that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces symptoms of depression. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis suggests that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid may be more beneficial in mood disorders than with docosahexaenoic acid, although several confounding factors prevented a definitive conclusion being made regarding which species of omega-3 PUFA is most beneficial, according to "Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?" by Ross BM, Seguin J, Sieswerda LE.(8)

9. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activities
In the investigation of the hexane extract from different parts in several Hypericum species, found that The antioxidant activity of all hexane extracts was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The results indicate that hexane extracts from different parts of H. scabrum possess considerable antioxidant activity. The highest radical scavenging activity was detected in seed, which had an IC50 = 165 microg/mL. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts of those samples were determined against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae), as well as three fungi (Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger), according to "Antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and fatty acid components of flower, leaf, stem and seed of Hypericum scabrum" by Shafaghat A.(9)

10. Post-partum depression PPD
In the investigation of the effect of unbalanced dietary intake of omega-6/omega-3 ratio >9:1 in the prevalence for PPD, comprising a prospective cohort with four waves of follow-up during pregnancy and one following delivery. PPD was evaluated according to the Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale (PPD ≥ 11) in 106 puerperae between 2005 and 2007, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Independent variables included socio-demographic, obstetric, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and dietary intake data, which were obtained by means of a food frequency questionnaire in the first trimester of pregnancy, verified that an association between omega-6/omega-3 ratio above 9:1, the levels recommended by the Institute of Medicine, and the prevalence of PPD. These results add to the evidence regarding the importance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the regulation of mental health mechanisms, according to "High dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated acids during pregnancy and prevalence of post-partum depression" by da Rocha CM, Kac G.(10)

11. Relieving inflammation
In the evaluation of the effects of lymphatic drainage and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3PUFA) on high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), inflammatory cytokines and endotoxin in rats with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, found that Lymphatic drainage may reduce the levels of endotoxin, inflammatory cytokines and HMGB1 so as to alleviate the intestinal I/R injury. The intervention of omega-3PUFA has some protective effect through relieving inflammation, according to "[Effects of lymphatic drainage and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats].[Article in Chinese]" by Zhou KG, He GZ, Zhang R, Chen XF.(11)

12. Suppression of inflammatory
In the determination of whether salmon (rich in n-3 LCPUFAs) consumption twice a week during pregnancy affected offspring umbilical vein EC CAM expression, showed that increased dietary salmon intake in pregnancy dampens offspring EC activation, which implicates a role for n-3 LCPUFAs in the suppression of inflammatory processes in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00801502, according to "Salmon consumption by pregnant women reduces ex vivo umbilical cord endothelial cell activation" by van den Elsen LW, Noakes PS, van der Maarel MA, Kremmyda LS, Vlachava M, Diaper ND, Miles EA, Eussen SR, Garssen J, Willemsen LE, Wilson SJ, Godfrey KM, Calder PC.(12)

13. Neonatal immune responses
In thye assessment of whether an increased intake of oily fish in pregnancy modifies neonatal immune responses and early markers of atopy, showed that Oily fish intervention in pregnancy modifies neonatal immune responses but may not affect markers of infant atopy assessed at 6 mo of age, according to "Increased intake of oily fish in pregnancy: effects on neonatal immune responses and on clinical outcomes in infants at 6 mo" by Noakes PS, Vlachava M, Kremmyda LS, Diaper ND, Miles EA, Erlewyn-Lajeunesse M, Williams AP, Godfrey KM, Calder PC.(13)

14. Allergic disease
In the study of the effects of maternal n-3 (PUFA)-rich fish oil supplementation on cord blood (CB) IgE and cytokine levels in neonates at risk of developing allergic disease, found that increasing neonatal n-3 PUFA levels with maternal dietary supplementation can achieve subtle modification of neonatal cytokine levels. Further assessment of immune function and clinical follow-up of these infants will help determine if there are any significant effects on postnatal immune development and expression of allergic disease, according to " Maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy reduces interleukin-13 levels in cord blood of infants at high risk of atopy' by Dunstan JA, Mori TA, Barden A, Beilin LJ, Taylor AL, Holt PG, Prescott SL.(14)

15. Mucosal immune function
In the evaluation of if changes in breast milk omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) composition as a result of maternal dietary fish oil supplementation during pregnancy can modify levels of these immunological parameters in breast milk, found that Supplementation with fish oil during pregnancy significantly alters early post-partum breast milk fatty acid composition. omega-3 PUFA levels were positively associated with IgA and sCD14 levels, suggesting a relationship between fatty acid status and mucosal immune function, according to "The effect of supplementation with fish oil during pregnancy on breast milk immunoglobulin A, soluble CD14, cytokine levels and fatty acid composition" by Dunstan JA, Roper J, Mitoulas L, Hartmann PE, Simmer K, Prescott SL.(15)

16. Ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial infarction
In the investigation of the effectiveness of prescription medication containing 90% omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for 6 months on ventricular arrhythmias in patients with myocardial infarction less than a year ago, found that Administration of highly concentration preparation of omega-3 PUFAs for 3 months reduced number of PVCs per day, frequencies of grades 2, 3, 4A, 4B, and high grade PVCs (grades 3 - 5) as a whole. These effects persisted after 6 months of treatment, according to "[Possibilities of a preparation omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial infarction].[Article in Russian]" by Gogolashvili NG, Litvinenko MV, Pochikaeva TN, Vavitova ES, Polikarpov LS, Novgorodtseva NIa.(16)

17. Health effects
In the investigation of the health effects of Perilla frutescens seeds, a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), showed that in comparing to other plant oils, perilla seed oil consistently contains the one of the highest proportion of omega-3 (ALA) fatty acids, at 54-64%. The omega-6 (linoleic acid) component is usually around 14% and omega-9 (Oleic acid) is also present in perilla oil. These polyunsaturated fatty acids are most beneficial to human health and in prevention of different diseases like cardiovascular disorders, cancer, inflammatory, rheumatoid arthritis etc., according to "Health effects of omega-3,6,9 fatty acids: Perilla frutescens is a good example of plant oils" by Asif M.(17)

18. Obesity
in the determination of whether obesity modifies the association between plasma phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants, found that the modifying effect of obesity on the association of plasma PUFAs with IL-6 and sICAM-1 suggests differences in fatty acid metabolism and may also have implications in dietary fatty acid intake for obese individuals, particularly for linoleic and EPAs. Further study is warranted to confirm and explain the strong associations of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) with inflammatory and endothelial activation markers, according to "Obesity modifies the association between plasma phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids and markers of inflammation: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis" by Steffen BT, Steffen LM, Tracy R, Siscovick D, Hanson NQ, Nettleton J, Tsai MY.(18)

19. Crohn's disease (CD)
In the investigation of the effects of a nutritionally balanced inflammatory bowel disease nutrition formula (IBDNF) on nutrition status in CD patients, indicate that twenty patients completed the final visit. After 4 months, there was a significant decrease in plasma phospholipid levels of arachidonic acid with increases in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid. Ten patients had a final EPA concentration of >2%. There was improvement in fat-free and fat mass in patients with final EPA >2% (P = .014 and P = .05). Vitamin D (25-OH) levels improved in all patients (18.5-25.9 ng/mL, P < .001). Those with EPA >2% had significantly lower CDAI (116 ± 94.5 vs 261.8 ± 86.5; P = .005) and higher IBDQ (179.1 ± 26.6 vs 114.6 ± 35.9, P < .001) compared to those with EPA <2%, according to "The effects of an oral supplement enriched with fish oil, prebiotics, and antioxidants on nutrition status in Crohn's disease patients" by Wiese DM, Lashner BA, Lerner E, DeMichele SJ, Seidner DL.(19)

20. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1396998
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7777237
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8105015
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1971991
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16482073
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22250656
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18583436
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17877810
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22224301
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22136220
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22093738
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22011457
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22218160
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12680858
(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15298564
(16) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21942955
(17) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21909287
(18) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21829163
(19) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21775642