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Friday, 8 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 15 Health Benefits of Catechins

Catechins is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in white tea, green tea, black tea, grapes, wine, apple juice, cocoa, lentils, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Body-weight regulation
Green tea has been proposed as a tool for obesity management as strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance, as researchers found that a green tea-caffeine mixture improves weight maintenance, through thermogenesis, fat oxidation, and sparing fat free mass. The sympathetic nervous system is involved in the regulation of lipolysis, and the sympathetic innervation of white adipose tissue may play an important role in the regulation of total body fat in general, according to "Green tea catechins, caffeine and body-weight regulation" by Westerterp-Plantenga MS.(1)

2. Cholesterol
In a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating the relationship between GTCs and serum lipid levels, including total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, found that the consumption of GTCs is associated with a statistically significant reduction in total and LDL cholesterol levels; however, there was no significant effect on HDL cholesterol or triglyceride levels, according to " Green tea catechins decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a systematic review and meta-analysis" by Kim A, Chiu A, Barone MK, Avino D, Wang F, Coleman CI, Phung OJ.(2)

3. Anti liver cancer
In the examination ofthe effect of catechins on the antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX) in a murine model, found that tea catechins at non-toxic doses can augment DOX-induced cell killing and sensitize chemoresistant HCC cells to DOX. The chemosensitizing effect of catechins may occur directly or indirectly by reversal of multidrug resistance, involving the suppression of MDR1 expression, or by enhancement of intracellular DOX accumulation, involving inhibition of P-gp function, according to "Green tea catechins augment the antitumor activity of doxorubicin in an in vivo mouse model for chemoresistant liver cancer" by
Liang G, Tang A, Lin X, Li L, Zhang S, Huang Z, Tang H, Li QQ.

4. Antioxidant activity
In the research on polyphenolic compounds (included catechins) in the berries of edible honeysuckle and their biological effects, including recommended utilization, are reviewed found that These berries seem to be prospective sources of health-supporting phytochemicals that exhibit beneficial anti-adherence and chemo-protective activities, thus they may provide protection against a number of chronic conditions, e.g., cancer, diabetes mellitus, tumour growth or cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, according to "Phenolic profile of edible honeysuckle berries (genus lonicera) and their biological effects" by Jurikova T, Rop O, Mlcek J, Sochor J, Balla S, Szekeres L, Hegedusova A, Hubalek J, Adam V, Kizek R.(4)

5. Severe dyslipidemia
In the observation of three-month old ATX mice were treated, or not, for 3 months with the polyphenol (+)-catechin (CAT, 30 mg/kg/day) and compared to wild-type (WT) controls,
found that cctive remodeling of the cerebrovascular wall in ATX mice was further suggested by the increase (P<0.05) in pro-metalloproteinase-9 activity, which was normalized by CAT. We conclude that by preserving the endothelial function, a chronic treatment with CAT prevents the deleterious effect of severe dyslipidemia on cerebral artery wall structure and biomechanical properties, contributing to preserving resting cerebral blood flow, according to "Catechin prevents severe dyslipidemia-associated changes in wall biomechanics of cerebral arteries in LDLr-/-:hApoB+/+ mice and improves cerebral blood flow" by Bolduc V, Baraghis E, Duquette N, Thorin-Trescases N, Lambert J, Lesage F, Thorin E.(5)

6. Anti-inflammatory effect
In the preparation of the gel of Chinese medicine catechu, and to observe the release mechanism in vitro and anti-inflammatory activity in rats, found that the optimum condition of extraction from catechu was as follows, the concentration of ethanol, ratio of raw material to solvent, ultrasonic time, and extraction temperature were 50% , 1: 12, 35 min and 60 degrees C, respectively. The formulation of catechu gel was carbomer-9 400.5 g, glycerol 5.0 g, the extracts of catechu 50.0 mL, and triethanomine 0.5 mL The gel was semitransparent and stable. The drugs released quickly. The catechu gel reduced the paw edema considerably in dose-dependent manner compared to carrageenan-induced rat, according to "[Preparation and pharmacodynamics studies on anti-inflammatory effect of catechu gel].[Article in Chinese]" by Zheng X, Zheng C.(6)

7. Neuropathic pain
In the investigation of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin in green tea and its effect on intrathecal EGCG in neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation, found that This antinociceptive effect was reversed by intrathecal pretreatment with l-arginine, a precursor of NO. Intrathecal EGCG also blocked the increase in nNOS expression in the spinal cord of spinal nerve-ligated rats, but iNOS expression was not significantly suppressed. These findings suggest that intrathecal EGCG could produce an antiallodynic effect against spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain, mediated by blockade of nNOS protein expression and inhibition of the pronociceptive effects of NO, according to "Role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the antiallodynic effects of intrathecal EGCG in a neuropathic pain rat model" by Choi JI, Kim WM, Lee HG, Kim YO, Yoon MH.(7)

8. Cholesterol and glucose levels
In the examination of the effect of the main green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), taken in a green tea extract, Polyphenon E (PPE) and their effect on circulating hormone levels, an established breast cancer risk factor, found that Glucose and insulin levels decreased nonsignificantly in the PPE groups but increased in the placebo group; statistically significant differences in changes in glucose (P=0.008) and insulin (P=0.01) were found. In summary, green tea (400 and 800 mg EGCG as PPE; ~5-10 cups) supplementation for 2 months had suggestive beneficial effects on LDL cholesterol concentrations and glucose-related markers, according to "Effect of 2-month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormonal levels in healthy postmenopausal women" by
Wu AH, Spicer D, Stanczyk FZ, Tseng C, Yang CS, Pike MC.(8)

9. Neuroprotective effects
In the evaluation the neuroprotective effects of theanine and catechins contained in green tea , found that the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of theanine is related not only to the glutamate receptor but also to other mechanisms such as the glutamate transporter, although further studies are needed. One of the onset mechanisms for arteriosclerosis, a major factor in ischemic cerebrovascular disease, is probably the oxidative alteration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by active oxygen species. The oxidative alterations of LDL were shown to be prevented by tea catechins. Scavenging of *O(2)(-) was also exhibited by tea catechins. The neuroprotective effects of theanine and catechins contained in green tea are a focus of considerable attention, and further studies are warranted, according to "Neuroprotective effects of the green tea components theanine and catechins" by Kakuda T.(9)

10. Anti-obesity effects
In the elucidation of the anti-obesity effects of three major components of green tea, catechins, caffeine and theanine, female ICR mice, found that The body weight increase and weight of IPAT were significantly reduced by the diets containing green tea, caffeine, theanine, caffeine + catechins, caffeine + theanine and caffeine + catechins + theanine. Noticeably, the IPAT weight decreased by 76.8% in the caffeine + catechins compared to the control group. Serum concentrations of triglycerides (TG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were decreased by green tea, catechins and theanine. Moreover, caffeine + catechins, caffeine + theanine and caffeine + catechins + theanine also decreased NEFA in the serum. The TG level in the liver was significantly reduced by catechins and catechins + theanine in comparison with the control, according to "Anti-obesity effects of three major components of green tea, catechins, caffeine and theanine, in mice" by Zheng G, Sayama K, Okubo T, Juneja LR, Oguni I.(10)

11. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
In the investigation of green tea's effect on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a constellation of progressive liver disorders, found that green tea is rich in polyphenolic catechins that have hypolipidemic, thermogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities that may mitigate the occurrence and progression of NAFLD. This review presents the experimental evidence demonstrating the hepatoprotective properties of green tea and its catechins and the proposed mechanisms by which these targeted dietary agents protect against NAFLD, according to"Therapeutic potential of green tea in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" by Masterjohn C, Bruno RS.(11)

12. Age-related Neurodegeneration
In the identification of green tea (GT) and the effect of large amounts of brain-accessible polyphenols, found that the beneficial action of catechins in learning and memory with a particular focus on the hippocampal formation. We conclude that GT polyphenols can have a promising role in the reversal of age-related loss of neuronal plasticity and recovery after neuronal lesions associated with aging, according to "Protective Effects of Chronic Green Tea Consumption on Age-related Neurodegeneration" by Andrade JP, Assunção M.(12)

13. Anti-influenza virus activity
In the study of Polyphenolic compounds present in green tea, particularly catechins, and its effect on strong anti-influenza activity, found that therapeutic administration of green tea by-products via feed or water supplement resulted in a dose-dependent significant antiviral effect in chickens, with a dose of 10 g/kg of feed being the most effective (P < 0.001), according to "Anti-influenza virus activity of green tea by-products in vitro and efficacy against influenza virus infection in chickens" by Lee HJ, Lee YN, Youn HN, Lee DH, Kwak JH, Seong BL, Lee JB, Park SY, Choi IS, Song CS.(13)

14. Prostate Cancer
In the review of Prostate cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second most common cause of cancer deaths in American men indicated that epidemiological studies suggest that tea consumption has protective effects against a variety of human cancers, including that of the prostate. Laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that green tea components, specifically the green tea catechin (GTC) epigallocatechin gallate, can induce apoptosis, suppress progression, and inhibit invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer, according to "New Insights Into the Mechanisms of Green Tea Catechins in the Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer" by Connors SK, Chornokur G, Kumar NB.(14)

15. Breast cancer
In the developing a chronically induced breast cell carcinogenesis model to the exposure of non-cancerous, human breast epithelial MCF10A cells to bioachievable picomolar concentrations of environmental carcinogens, such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), to progressively induce cellular acquisition of cancer-associated properties, as measurable end points, found that green tea catechins (GTCs) , at non-cytotoxic levels, were able to suppress chronically induced cellular carcinogenesis by blocking carcinogen-induced ROS elevation, ERK activation, cell proliferation and DNA damage in each exposure cycle. Our model may help accelerate the identification of preventive agents to intervene in carcinogenesis induced by long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens, thereby safely and effectively reducing the health risk of sporadic breast cancer, according to "Green tea catechin intervention of reactive oxygen species-mediated ERK pathway activation and chronically induced breast cell carcinogenesis" by Rathore K, Choudhary S, Odoi A, Wang HC.(15)

16. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20156466
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22027055
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20514403
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22269864
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22268108
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22256752
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22249118
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22246619
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12499631
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15011752
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22221215
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22211685
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22184430
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22098273
(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22045026