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Friday, 8 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 13 Health Benefits of Gallocatechin

Gallocatechin, containing catechin is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in green tea, almonds, black diamond plums, black tea, cocoa beans, Fuji apples, golden delicious apple, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Bone metabolism
In the investigation of three tea catechins, epigallocatechin (EGC), gallocatechin (GC), and gallocatechin gallate (GCG) for their effects on bone metabolism, found that EGC significantly inhibited osteoclast formations from RAW 264.7 cells upon receptor activation of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand induction on the fourth day of treatment, at a concentration of 10 microM. EGC also dose-dependently inhibited the mRNA expression of tatrate-resistant acid phosphatase. GC and GCG could decrease osteoclastogenesis at 20 microM. The present study illustrated that the tea catechins, EGC in particular, had positive effects on bone metabolism through a double process of promoting osteoblastic activity and inhibiting osteoclast differentiations, according to "Effects of tea catechins, epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, and gallocatechin gallate, on bone metabolism" by Ko CH, Lau KM, Choy WY, Leung PC.(1)

2. Antimetastatic effects
In the evaluation of the antimetastatic effects of P urinaria L extracts (PUE), containingpolyphenols including gallic acid, methyl gallate, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, gallocatechin-3-gallate, rutin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and naringin, found that PUE inhibits the transcription of MMP-2 mRNA. PUE also exerted an inhibitory effect on the DNA-binding activity and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of PUE on the metastasis and growth of LLC cells in vivo were proven. These results indicate that PUE could be applied to be a potential antimetastatic agent, according to "Antimetastatic Potentials of Phyllanthusurinaria L on A549 and Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells via Repression of Matrix-Degrading Proteases" by Tseng HH, Chen PN, Kuo WH, Wang JW, Chu SC, Hsieh YS.(2)

3. Anti skin cancer
In the determination of the effect of green tea catechins on the invasive potential of human melanoma cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using A375 (BRAF-mutated) and Hs294t (Non-BRAF-mutated) melanoma cell lines as an in vitro model, found that Inhibition of melanoma cell migration by EGCG was associated with transition of mesenchymal stage to epithelial stage, which resulted in an increase in the levels of epithelial biomarkers (E-cadherin, cytokeratin and desmoglein 2) and a reduction in the levels of mesenchymal biomarkers (vimentin, fibronectin and N-cadherin) in A375 melanoma cells. Together, these results indicate that EGCG, a major green tea catechin, has the ability to inhibit melanoma cell invasion/migration, an essential step of metastasis, by targeting the endogenous expression of COX-2, PGE(2) receptors and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, according to "Green tea catechins reduce invasive potential of human melanoma cells by targeting COX-2, PGE2 receptors and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition" by Singh T, Katiyar SK(3)

4. Antidiabetic activity
In the observation of Terminalia sericea stem bark extract and theirs effect against alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase enzymes, found that four known compounds namely beta-sitosterol (1), beta-sitosterol-3-acetate (2), lupeol (3), and stigma-4-ene-3-one (4), in addition to two inseparable sets of mixtures of isomers [epicatechin-catechin (M1), and gallocatechin-epigallocatechin (M2). 1 and 3 showed the best inhibitory activity on alpha-glucosidase (IC50:54.5 and 66.5 microM). Bio-evaluation of the inhibitory activity of the purified compounds on alpha-amylase showed that 3 and 1 exhibited IC50 values of 140.7 and 216.02 microM, respectively against alpha-amylase, according to "Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia sericea constituents" by Nkobole N, Houghton PJ, Hussein A, Lall N.(4)

5. Anti-uveal melanoma activity
In the study of the MeOH extract of Acacia nilotica pods, resulted in the isolation of the new compound gallocatechin 5-O-gallate in addition to methyl gallate, gallic acid, catechin, catechin 5-O-gallate, 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,6-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose and digallic acid, found that in addition to uveal melanoma, the antiproliferative activities of the isolated compounds and the related compound epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG) were evaluated against cutaneous melanoma, ovarian cancer, glioblastoma and normal retinal pigmented cells, according to "In vitro anti-uveal melanoma activity of phenolic compounds from the Egyptian medicinal plant Acacia nilotica" by Salem MM, Davidorf FH, Abdel-Rahman MH.(5)

6. Degenerative diseases
In the inestigation of whether green tea and its components can regulate the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in pluripotent rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The rat MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of tibiae and femora, found that among six tested tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin (EGC) was shown to be the most effective in promoting osteogenic differentiation. At 20 μM, EGC increased ALP levels and Ca deposition significantly by 2.3- and 1.7-fold, respectively, when compared with the control group. EGC also increased the mRNA expression of bone formation markers runt-related transcription factor 2, ALP, osteonectin, and osteopontin, according to "Pro-bone and antifat effects of green tea and its polyphenol, epigallocatechin, in rat mesenchymal stem cells in vitro" by Ko CH, Siu WS, Wong HL, Shum WT, Fung KP, San Lau CB, Leung PC.(6)

7. Antioxidants
In the identification of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and its important roles in the maintenance of cellular redox balance, found that Pretreatment with green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) effectively blocked peroxynitrite-induced glutathione depletion, p53 accumulation, and apoptosis in both normal and G6PD-deficient cells. EGCG, administered to cells alone or as pretreatment, caused activation of Akt. The protective effect was abolished by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, wortmannin, and LY294002, according to "Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects cells against peroxynitrite-induced cytotoxicity: modulatory effect of cellular G6PD status" by Ho HY, Wei TT, Cheng ML, Chiu DT.(7)

8. Anti HIV
In the investigation of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in green tea and its effect on HIV-1, found that EGCG appears to act mainly as an allosteric reverse transcriptase inhibitor with mechanisms different from those of currently approved NNRTIs that directly interact with the NNRTI binding pocket. Thus, EGCG is a good candidate for use as an additional or supportive anti-HIV agent derived from natural plants, according to "Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits the HIV reverse transcription step" by Li S, Hattori T, Kodama EN.(8)

9. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities
In the evaluation of the radioprotective efficacy of green tea polyphenols and the component ingredients against irradiated-induced damage in mice and elucidate the underlying mechanisms, found that Moreover GTP and its bioactive components (catechin, epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate) assisted in decreasing the leukocytopenia seen after whole mice irradiation and significantly reduced the elevated serum inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6). Green tea polyphenols have a potential to be developed as radioprotective agents against irradiated-induced toxicity. Furthermore the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of GTP can be attributed to the interaction of the different components through multiple and synergistic mechanisms, according to "Bioactive components from the tea polyphenols influence on endogenous antioxidant defense system and modulate inflammatory cytokines after total-body irradiation in mice" by Hu Y, Guo DH, Liu P, Cao JJ, Wang YP, Yin J, Zhu Y, Rahman K.(9)

10. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects
In the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect of nanocatechin on CBP and plasma concentration of catechins in an animal model, found that the use of ciprofloxacin, catechin, and nanocatechin showed statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group. The nanocatechin group showed statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the catechin group. Plasma concentrations of epicatechin, gallocatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate were significantly higher in the nanocatechin group than those in the catechin group. These results suggest that nanocatechin has better antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects on rat CBP than catechin due to higher absorption into the body, according to "Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of nanocatechin in a chronic bacterial prostatitis rat model" by Yoon BI, Ha US, Sohn DW, Lee SJ, Kim HW, Han CH, Lee CB, Cho YH.(10)

11. Ultraviolet B irradiation protection
In the investigation of the protective effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the immune function of dendritic cells (DCs) after ultraviolet B irradiation (UVB), found that the inhibition rate of DCs was improved to some extent after treatment with 200 microg/mL of EGCG. UVB showed no significant influence on the secretion of IL-10 and IL-12 from DCs, while EGCG was able to down-regulate the secretion level of IL-12 and up-regulate that of IL-10, according to "Protective effect of epigallocatechin gallate on the immune function of dendritic cells after ultraviolet B irradiation" by Jin SL, Zhou BR, Luo D.(11)

12. Antiviral effect
In the identification of tea polyphenols were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enterovirus 71 (EV71) replication in Vero cell culture, found that The viral inhibitory effect correlated well with the antioxidant capacity of polyphenol. Mechanistically, EV71 infection led to increased oxidative stress, as shown by increased dichlorofluorescein and MitoSOX Red fluorescence. Upon EGCG treatment, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was significantly reduced. Consistent with this, EV71 replication was enhanced in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient cells, and such enhancement was largely reversed by EGCG, according to "Antiviral effect of epigallocatechin gallate on enterovirus 71" by Ho HY, Cheng ML, Weng SF, Leu YL, Chiu DT.(12)

13. Neuroprotective effect
In the research of beta-Amyloid (Abeta) peptide, a major component of senile plaques has been regarded to play a crucial role in the development and neuropathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), found that EGCG may have preventive and/or therapeutic potential in AD patients by augmenting cellular antioxidant defense capacity and attenuating Abeta-mediated oxidative and/or nitrosative cell death, according to" Neuroprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against beta-amyloid-induced oxidative and nitrosative cell death via augmentation of antioxidant defense capacity" by Kim CY, Lee C, Park GH, Jang JH.(13)

14. Etc.
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