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Tuesday, 5 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 13 Health Benefits of Silymarin

Silymarin is a phytochemical in the class of Lignans (phytoestrogens), found abundantly in artichokes, milk thistle, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Antioxidants
In the testing the effects ofEthyl acetate (100mg/kg bw) and ethanol seed extracts for S. marianum (100mg/kg bw) against the injection (i.p.) by carbon tetrachloride (2 ml/kg bw) the inducer of liver damage, found that ethanolic extract showed the most significantly decrease in the liver enzymes. For the oxidative experiments, ethyl acetate showed the most increase for glutathione level and the risk factor HDL/LDL significantly. Hepaticum was the most powerful group for the significant decreasing for malondialdehyde and fucosidase activity, according to "Silymarin, the antioxidant component and Silybum marianum extracts prevent liver damage" by Shaker E, Mahmoud H, Mnaa S.(1)

2. Chronic liver diseases
In the investigation of the main effects of silymarin on the membrane stabilising and antioxidant effects as it is able to help the liver cell regeneration and decrease the inflammatory reaction and inhibit the fibrogenesis in the liver, found that silymarin is able to decrease significantly tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis as well as insulin resistance. These results support the administration of silymarin preparations in the therapy of chronic liver diseases, especially in alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in current clinical practice, and as it can be awaited, also in the future, according to "[Silymarin in the treatment of chronic liver diseases: past and future].[Article in Hungarian]" by Fehér J, Lengyel G.(2)

3. Liver cancer
In the investigation of the mechanisms involved in the growth inhibitory effect of silymarin, in humanhepatocellular carcinoma, found that Silymarin inhibited population growth of the hepatocellular carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the percentage of apoptotic cells was increased after treatment with 50 and 75 microg/ml silymarin for 24 h. Silymarin treatment increased the proportion of cells with reduced DNA content (sub-G(0)/G(1) or A(0) peak), indicative of apoptosis with loss of cells in the G(1) phase, according to "Silymarin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in hepatic cancer cells" by Ramakrishnan G, Lo Muzio L, Elinos-Báez CM, Jagan S, Augustine TA, Kamaraj S, Anandakumar P, Devaki T.(3)

4. Anti cancers
In the stigmatization of the recent investigations and mechanistic studies regarding possible molecular targets of silymarin for cancer prevention, indicated that the protective effects of silymarin and its major active constituent, silibinin, studied in various tissues, suggest a clinical application in cancer patients as an adjunct to established therapies, to prevent or reduce chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy-induced toxicity. This review focuses on the chemistry and analogues of silymarin, multiple possible molecular mechanisms, in vitro as well as in vivo anti-cancer activities, and studies on human clinical trials, according to "Multitargeted therapy of cancer by silymarin" by Ramasamy K, Agarwal R.(4)

5. Skin health
In the examination of the toxicity of octylamine-poly(acrylic acid) (OPA) modified CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and a pharmacological means of preventing QD-induced cell death,
found that Silibinin, a natural product derived from milkweed thistle, is known for its powerful antioxidant and membrane stabilizing properties. Pretreatment of cells with silibinin, significantly reduced QD-induced cell death in A375 and A375-S2 cells, according to "The cytotoxicity of OPA-modified CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots and its modulation by silibinin in human skin cells" by Zheng H, Chen G, Song F, DeLouise LA, Lou Z.(5)

6. Diabetes
In the study conducted on cirrhotic patients with diabetes mellitus admitted to Medical Trust Hospital, Cochin, Kerala, during the period from July 2009 to December 2009. Patients of both gender, aged between 20 and 70 years, found that the hypoglycemic potential of silymarin may be due its antioxidant activity by reducing insulin resistance. Our study revealed that silymarin has good effect in the restoration of liver function and also established efficacy in controlling blood glucose level in diabetes patients with liver disease, according to "Effect of silymarin in diabetes mellitus patients with liver diseases" by(6)

7. Neuroprotective effect
In numerous studies reported impaired cognitive and neurochemical function in diabetic patients and streptozotocin induced diabetic rodents, found that HO-1 is differently expressed in various brain regions in db/db mice when compared to lean animals. Furthermore, silibinin provides DNA protection and reduces oxidative stress in a brain specific area, in part via the activation of the HO system. Silibinin may provide a valid tool to counteract oxidative stress in the diabetic status in the central nervous system under diabetic condition, according to "Neuroprotective effect of silibinin in diabetic mice" by
Marrazzo G, Bosco P, La Delia F, Scapagnini G, Di Giacomo C, Malaguarnera M, Galvano F, Nicolosi A, Li Volti G.(7)

8. Allergic rhinitis
In a randomized clinical trial, 94 patients with the signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis and a positive skin prick test were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups. Their signs and symptoms, eosinophil percentage on nasal smear, serum IgE, and interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, interferon-γ) levels were recorded. The study group was treated with silymarin, whereas the control group received placebo, both for 1 month, along with routine antihistamine treatment. At the end of the treatment course, clinical and laboratory findings were statistically analyzed,indicated that the statistically effective role of silymarin in alleviating the severity of allergic rhinitis symptoms, applying this herbal antioxidant along with other medications may result in better management, according to "Effect of silymarin in the treatment of allergic rhinitis" by Bakhshaee M, Jabbari F, Hoseini S, Farid R, Sadeghian MH, Rajati M, Mohamadpoor AH, Movahhed R, Zamani MA.(8)

9. Antibacterial effect
In the study, the antibacterial activities of silibinin were investigated in combination with two antimicrobial agents against oral bacteria, found that the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated after 2-6  h of treatment with the MBC of silibinin, regardless of whether it was administered alone or with ampicillin or gentamicin. These results suggest that silibinin combined with other antibiotics may be microbiologically beneficial and not antagonistic, according to "Synergistic antibacterial effect between silibinin and antibiotics in oral bacteria" by Lee YS, Jang KA, Cha JD.(9)

10. Osteoblastogenesis and osteoprotection
In the study of the silibinin bone-forming and osteoprotective effects in in vitro cell systems of murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. MC3T3-E1 cells were incubated in osteogenic media in the presence of 1-20 µM silibinin up to 15 days, found that silibinin retarded tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K induction and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity elevated by RANKL through disturbing TRAF6-c-Src signaling pathways. These results demonstrate that silibinin was a potential therapeutic agent promoting bone-forming osteoblastogenesis and encumbering osteoclastic bone resorption, according to "Osteoblastogenesis and osteoprotection enhanced by flavonolignan silibinin in osteoblasts and osteoclasts" by Kim JL, Kang SW, Kang MK, Gong JH, Lee ES, Han SJ, Kang YH.(10)

11. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20034535
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19073452
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19317806
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18472213
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22195482
(6) http://www.jpharmacol.com/article.asp?issn=0976-500X;year=2011;volume=2;issue=4;spage=287;epage=289;aulast=Jose
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21970972
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21952357
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21941436
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21898547