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Wednesday, 6 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 12 Health Benefits of Tannic acid

Tannic acid is a phytochemical in the class of phenolic acids, found abundantly in nettles, tea, berries, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Asthma in Children
In the determination of the effectiveness of physical and chemical environmental control measures for house dust mites (HDM) in controlling bronchial asthma in children, found that in the group where tannic acid was used as a chemical measure, the number of children with moderate and severe asthma decreased from 15 in each category to 11 and 7, respectively. In the control group, only the mean difference of PEFR (1.62 l/min) was significant after 16 weeks. Despite these promising findings, only the FEV1 was significantly different (p = 0.014) when the four groups were compared, according to "Environmental intervention for house dust mite control in childhood bronchial asthma" by El-Ghitany EM, Abd El-Salam MM.(1)

2. Antiviral activity
In the investigation of the inhibition effects of Chinese medicinal herbs against NoVs binding to HBGAs for potential antivirals against NoVs, found that tannic acid is a common composition in the extracts of the two herbs, so we speculate that it might be the effective compound and further studies using commercially available, highly purified tannic acid confirmed the tannic acid as a strong inhibitor in the binding of NoV P protein to both A and B saliva (IC(50)≈0.1μM). Our data suggested that tannic acid is a promising candidate antiviral against NoVs., according to "Tannic acid inhibited norovirus binding to HBGA receptors, a study of 50 Chinese medicinal herbs" by Zhang XF, Dai YC, Zhong W, Tan M, Lv ZP, Zhou YC, Jiang X.(2)

3. Anti tumors
In the searching for the development of tumor drug resistance is one of the biggest obstacles on the way to achieve a favorable outcome of chemotherapy, found that plant polyphenols that have been identified to possess proteasome-inhibitory activity include (-)-epigallocatechins-3-gallate (EGCG), genistein, luteolin, apigenin, chrysin, quercetin, curcumin and tannic acid. These polyphenols have exhibited an appreciable effect on overcoming resistance to various chemotherapeutic drugs as well as multidrug resistance in a broad spectrum of tumors ranging from carcinoma and sarcoma to hematological malignances, according to "Targeting Tumor Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway with Polyphenols for Chemosensitization" by Shen M, Chan TH, Dou QP.(3)

4. Longevity effect
In the review of the exposure of low concentrations of the polyphenol tannic acid (TA) induces potent life-prolonging properties in Caenorhabditis elegans, found that exploiting a suite of 14 mutant strains revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase SEK-1 (SAPK/ERK kinase) is a key player involved in TA-mediated longevity. It is conceivable that TA mimics pathogen action and therefore activates the SEK-1-mediated pathogen resistance pathway. This pathway is thought to inhibit potential detrimental effects of TA and may also be involved in the longevity process, according to "The longevity effect of tannic acid in Caenorhabditis elegans: Disposable Soma meets hormesis" by Saul N, Pietsch K, Menzel R, Stürzenbaum SR, Steinberg CE.(4)

5. Anti fungal effect
In the investigation of the heterologous expression of the tannic acid-inducible laccase3 using a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, found that expression of the lac3 gene has an inhibitory effect on the growth of transformed S. cerevisiae and that the controlled expression of lac3 is appropriate for the possible application of recombinant yeast to the treatment of phenolic compounds, according to "Heterologous expression of a tannic acid-inducible laccase3 of Cryphonectria parasitica in Saccharomyces cerevisiae" by Kim JM, Park SM, Kim DH.(5)

6. Internal hemorrhoids
In the study of aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA), a new sclerosing therapy for internal hemorrhoids, indicated that from January 2009 to March 2010, we performed the ALTA sclerosing therapy on 28 patients (14 men and 14 women; mean age, 64.6 years), including 5 second-degree, 16 third-degree and 7 fourth-degree hemorrhoids. There were 6 postoperative complications (2 cases of low grade fever, 2 anal pains, 1 necrosis at injection site and 1 perianal dermatitis). All symptoms of prolapse or bleeding disappeared after 29 postoperative days. There were 3 recurrent cases (10.7%). Conclusions: ALTA sclerosing therapy is a useful and less invasive treatment for internal hemorrhoids, according to "ALTA Injection Sclerosing Therapy:Non-Excisional Treatment of Internal Hemorrhoids" by
Miyamoto H, Asanoma M, Miyamoto H, Shimada M.(6)

7. Diuretic activity
In the investigation of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of Cyclea peltata and their diuretic activity, found that the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, diterpenes and saponins. Pharmacological investigation revealed that ethanolic extract of C. peltata leaves possessed significant diuretic activity in a given dose of 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (Diuretic action 1.7 and 2.6, respectively). Where as petroleum ether extract has shown moderate diuresis at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight (Diuretic action 1.1), according to "Phytochemical investigation and diuretic activity of Cyclea peltata leaf extracts" by Hullatti KK, Gopikrishna UV, Kuppast IJ.(7)

8. Inflammatory bowel disease
In the assessment of the protective effect of aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea leaves (AESO 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg, p.o.) in inflammatory bowel disease using acetic acid- and ethanol-induced colitis in mice and indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats, found that the treatment with AESO significantly increased body weight, decreased diarrhea with bloody stools, increased blood hemoglobin and plasma total protein, and decreased serum and ileum or colon malondialdehyde content and attenuated the extent of lesions and ameliorated the histological injury of mucosa in all paradigms. The most prominent effects were evident for AESO 1,000 mg/kg. The results of the present study revealed that AESO was effective in attenuating almost all the symptoms of IBD in experimental paradigms, according to "Protective effect of aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea leaves in experimental paradigms of inflammatory bowel disease" by Otari KV, Gaikwad PS, Shete RV, Upasani CD.(8)

9. Congestive effects
In the orally administration of the flavonoid tannic acid (TA) to the transgenic PSAPP mouse model of cerebral amyloidosis (bearing mutant human APP and presenilin-1 transgenes) and evaluation of the cognitive function and AD-like pathology, found that in vitro validation, we treated well-characterized mutant human APP-overexpressing murine neuron-like cells with TA and found significantly reduced Aβ production associated with less amyloidogenic APP proteolysis. Taken together, these results raise the possibility that dietary supplementation with TA may be prophylactic for AD by inhibiting β-secretase activity and neuroinflammation and thereby mitigating AD pathology, according to "Tannic Acid is a Natural β-secretase Inhibitor that Prevents Cognitive Impairment and Mitigates Alzheimer-like Pathology in Transgenic Mice" by Mori T, Rezai-Zadeh K, Koyama N, Arendash GW, Yamaguchi H, Kakuda N, Horikoshi-Sakuraba Y, Tan J, Town T.(9)

10. Colon cancer
In the investigation of Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel) bark, a rich source of condensed and hydrolyzable tannins is reported to exert a protective action against colon cancer, found that treatment with these compounds reduced tumor viability and induced apoptosis, necrosis, and S-phase arrest in the cell cycle of HT29 cells, with hamamelitannin being the most efficient. Owing to polyphenol-mediated H(2)O(2) formation in the incubation media, the antiproliferative effect was determined in the presence and absence of catalase to rule out any such interference, according to "Hamamelitannin from Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Displays Specific Cytotoxic Activity against Colon Cancer Cells" by Sánchez-Tena S, Fernández-Cachón ML, Carreras A, Mateos-Martín ML, Costoya N, Moyer MP, Nuñez MJ, Torres JL, Cascante M.(10)

11. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory effects and acute toxicity
In the enaluation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects and acute toxicity of aqueous infusion and ethanolic maceration extracts of the aerial parts of Zhumeria majdae, in mice and rats, found that phytochemical screening of the extracts indicated the presence of flavonoids and tannins. In the hot-plate test, the intraperitoneal injection of both extracts showed significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in mice. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, on pretreatment inhibited the antinociceptive activity of the extracts. The extracts exhibited antinociceptive activity against acetic acid-induced writhing, which was partially blocked by naloxone. Both extracts showed significant effect against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid in mice. In the chronic inflammation test, efficacy of the extracts was similar to that of baclofen and dexamethasone in rats, according to "Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Zhumeria majdae extracts in mice and rats" by Hosseinzadeh H, Ramezani M, Fadishei M, Mahmoudi M.(11)

12. Antioxidant activity
In the investigation of Highly galloylated tannin fractions from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) bark: electron transfer capacity, in vitro antioxidant activity, and effects on skin-related cells, by Touriño S, Lizárraga D, Carreras A, Lorenzo S, Ugartondo V, Mitjans M, Vinardell MP, Juliá L, Cascante M, Torres JL.(12), found that the extracts exhibited antinociceptive activity against acetic acid-induced writhing, which was partially blocked by naloxone. Both extracts showed significant effect against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid in mice. In the chronic inflammation test, efficacy of the extracts was similar to that of baclofen and dexamethasone in rats. It is concluded that the aqueous infusion and ethanolic maceration extract of the aerial parts of Zhumeria majdae have antinociceptive effects and this may be mediated by opioid receptors.

13. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22302565
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22285570
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22292765
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20413530
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20178646
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22260824
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22247891
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22234676
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22219198
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22216935
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11995946
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18311930