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Tuesday, 5 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods -10 Health Benefits of Matairesinol

Matairesinol is a phytochemical in the class of Lignans (phytoestrogens), found abundantly in flax seed, sesame seed, rye bran, strawberries, blackcurrants, broccoli, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Lowering vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction
in the investigation of whether dietary intake of plant lignans in a free-living populationassociated with markers of vascular inflammation and function, found that Plasma concentrations of sICAM-1 (whole sample) significantly decreased (mean (95%CI) = 358 microg/L (320-401), 276 microg/L (252-303), 298 microg/L (271-326), and 269 microg/L (239-303), P per trend 0.013) and FMD values (FMD sub-group) significantly increased (4.1% (2.2-6.0), 5.7% (4.3-7.2), 6.4% (4.9-7.8), and 8.1% (6.3-10.0), P per trend 0.016) across quartiles of energy-adjusted MAT intake, even after adjustment for relevant clinical and dietary variables. Intake of SECO was also inversely related to plasma sICAM-1 (P per trend 0.018), but not to FMD values, according to "Intake of the plant lignans matairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, pinoresinol, and lariciresinol in relation to vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in middle age-elderly men and post-menopausal women living in Northern Italy" by Pellegrini N, Valtue├▒a S, Ardig├▓ D, Brighenti F, Franzini L, Del Rio D, Scazzina F, Piatti PM, Zavaroni I.(1)

2. Breast cancer
In the investigation of usual dietary intakes of total and specific lignans with tumor characteristics in 683 women with breast cancer and 611 healthy women without breast cancer enrolled in the Data Bank and BioRepository at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI), wrote that
there were significant differences in the contribution to these effects by specific lignans, especially matairesinol and lariciresinol. In summary, in this case-control study of dietary lignan intakes and breast cancer, we found that higher lignan intakes were associated with lower risks of breast cancer with more favorable prognostic characteristics. Future investigations are warranted to explore the strong associations observed with ER(-) cancer in premenopausal women, according to "Dietary intakes of total and specific lignans are associated with clinical breast tumor characteristics" by McCann SE, Hootman KC, Weaver AM, Thompson LU, Morrison C, Hwang H, Edge SB, Ambrosone CB, Horvath PJ, Kulkarni SA.(2)

3. Immunomodulatory effect
In the investigation of the immunomodulatory effects of (-)-matairesinol in vivo and ex vivo by using mice, found that the immunoglobulin produced by lymphocytes from the spleen was not activated by the intake of (-)-matairesinol. However, lymphocytes in such gut-associated lymphatic tissues as Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes were activated by the administration of (-)-matairesinol, according to "Immunomodulatory effect of (--)-matairesinol in vivo and ex vivo" by Yamawaki M, Nishi K, Nishimoto S, Yamauchi S, Akiyama K, Kishida T, Maruyama M, Nishiwaki H, Sugahara T.(3)

4. Cardiovascular healthIn the assessment of the association of phytoestrogens and risk markers of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women, found that the intake of matairesinol and secoisolaiciresinol (SILR) (mean±SD, mg/day) were 0.022±0.006 and 7.30±3.28 respectively. The total phytoestrogens (r=-0.19, p=0.03) and SILR, one specific type of lignans (r=-0.19, p=0.04) consumption in this study were inversely significantly associated with serum glucose level. The dietary formononetin, one specific type of isoflavones was negatively significantly associated with LDL-cholesterol (r=-0.18, p=0.04). There was no significant relationship found between phytoestrogen intake and serum homocysteine level (r=-0.11, p=0.23). Phytoestrogens containing food intake should be encouraged for reducing risk markers of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women, according to "Phytoestrogen intake and cardiovascular risk markers in Bangladeshi postmenopausal women" by Saleh F, Afnan F, Ara F, Yasmin S, Nahar K, Khatun F, Ali L.(4)

5. Antimicrobiological activity
In the study of the effect of oxidation degree at the benzylic position of 2,3-dibenzyl-4-butanolide and 3,4-dibenzyltetrahydrofuran lignans on the antimicrobiological activity, found that he highest oxidation degree at the benzylic position of 2,3-dibenzyl-4-butanolide gave the greatest activity, and 3,4-dibenzoyltetrahydrofuran showed the highest antifungal activity. The relationship between stereochemistry and activity was also examined. Both enantiomers of cis-matairesinol were synthesized for the first time, one of the cis-matairesinols showing antibacterial activity, according to "Antimicrobiological activity of lignan: effect of benzylic oxygen and stereochemistry of 2,3-dibenzyl-4-butanolide and 3,4-dibenzyltetrahydrofuran lignans on activity" by Akiyama K, Maruyama M, Yamauchi S, Nakashima Y, Nakato T, Tago R, Sugahara T, Kishida T, Koba Y.(5)

6. Antiasthmatic effects
In the investigation of the effects on the immediate-phase response (IAR) and late-phase response (LAR) following aerosolized-ovalbumin challenge in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea-pigs by measuring the specific airway resistance (sRaw), recruitment of leukocytes and chemical mediators in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) as well as a histopathological survey,
found that Arctiin and matairesinol at 12.5 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.05) decreased sRaw by 51.83% and 43.15% in IAR and by 47.41% and 35.43% in LAR, respectively, whereas arctigenin at 25 mg/kg was significantly active, compared with the controls. Furthermore, arctiin and arctigenin dose-dependently inhibited histamine, and the activities of phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) in BALF, respectively, whereas matairesinol inhibited EPO and PLA₂ at 12.5 mg/kg and histamine at 50 mg/kg, in addition, they moderately improved the infiltration of eosinophils, compared with controls. Dexamethasone, cromolyn and salbutamol significantly inhibited sRaw in both IAR and LAR, and the recruitment of leukocytes and chemical mediators, whereas salbutamol did not alter chemical mediators, in BALF, according to "Antiasthmatic action of dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans from fruits of Forsythia viridissima on asthmatic responses to ovalbumin challenge in conscious guinea-pigs" by Lee JH, Lee JY, Kim TD, Kim CJ.(6)

7. Bone density
In the investigation of the association between habitual phyto-oestrogen intake and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) of the calcanaeum as a marker of bone density, we collected 7 d records of diet, medical history and demographic and anthropometric data from participants (aged 45-75 years) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study. Phyto-oestrogen (biochanin A, daidzein, formononetin; genistein, glycitein; matairesinol; secoisolariciresinol; enterolactone; equol) intake was determined using a newly developed food composition database, found that non-soya isoflavones are associated with bone density independent of Ca, whereas the association with soya or soya isoflavones is affected by dietary Ca, according to "Association between dietary phyto-oestrogens and bone density in men and postmenopausal women" by Kuhnle GG, Ward HA, Vogiatzoglou A, Luben RN, Mulligan A, Wareham NJ, Forouhi NG, Khaw KT.(7)

8. Anti cancer
In the investigation of AP9-cd, a synergistic lignan mixture from Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae) consisting of (-)-wikstromal, (-)-matairesinol and dibenzyl butyrolactol, depicted cytotoxic effects on mechanism of cell death in human cancer cells, found that surface ultrastructural studies of four different tumor cell lines (Molt-4, HL-60, PC-3 and A-549) treated with AP9-cd depicted loss of surface projections, condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies. AP9-cd treatment to transgenic fruit fly, Drosophila, carrying human adenomatous polpyposis coli (hAPC) gene enhanced eye phenotypes and therefore may inhibit Wnt/Wg pathway which is important in the aetiology of a number of human cancers, according to "Induction of apoptosis by a synergistic lignan composition from Cedrus deodara in human cancer cells" by Sharma PR, Shanmugavel M, Saxena AK, Qazi GN.(8)

9. Free radical scavengers
In the examination of the radical and superoxide scavenging activities of oxidized matairesinols,
indicated that the superoxide scavenging activity of the oxidized matairesinols was also demonstrated for the first time. It is assumed that the pKa value of phenol in the oxidized matairesinols affected this activity, according to "Radical and superoxide scavenging activities of matairesinol and oxidized matairesinol" by Yamauchi S, Sugahara T, Nakashima Y, Okada A, Akiyama K, Kishida T, Maruyama M, Masuda T.(9)

10. Coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, and all-cause mortality
In the assessment of whether the intakes of 4 plant lignans (lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol, and matairesinol) were inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, and all-cause mortality, found that total lignan intake was not associated with mortality. The intake of matairesinol was inversely associated with mortality due to CHD, CVD, cancer, and all causes. We cannot exclude the possibility that the inverse association between matairesinol intake and mortality is due to an associated factor, such as wine consumption, according to "Intakes of 4 dietary lignans and cause-specific and all-cause mortality in the Zutphen Elderly Study" by Milder IE, Feskens EJ, Arts IC, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Hollman PC, Kromhout D.(10)

11. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19361969
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22113872
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21597179
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21522091
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17617715
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20734328
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21736835
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19067377
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16926506
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16895890