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Monday, 4 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 10 Health Benefits of Pterostilbene

Pterostilbene is a phytochemical in the class of Stilbenoids, found abundantly in grapes, blueberries, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Colon cancer
In the identification of the chemopreventive potential of pterostilbene with colonic tumor formation as an end point and further to evaluate the mechanistic action of pterostilbene during colon carcinogenesis, found that Colon tumors from pterostilbene-fed animals showed reduced expression of inflammatory markers as well as nuclear staining for phospho-p65, a key molecule in the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway. In HT-29 cells, pterostilbene reduced the protein levels of beta-catenin, cyclin D1 and c-MYC, altered the cellular localization of beta-catenin and inhibited the phosphorylation of p65, according to "Dietary intake of pterostilbene, a constituent of blueberries, inhibits the beta-catenin/p65 downstream signaling pathway and colon carcinogenesis in rats' by Paul S, DeCastro AJ, Lee HJ, Smolarek AK, So JY, Simi B, Wang CX, Zhou R, Rimando AM, Suh N.(1)

2. Antioxidant effect
In the study of the antioxidant activities of trans-resveratrol, pterostilbene and quercetin, and the effect of their combination were investigated in human erythrocytes in vitro, found that Resveratrol was significantly less effective. However, the three compounds protected the erythocytes against hemolysis and GSH (reduced glutathione) depletion to the same extent. Combinations consisting of two compounds (molar ratio 1:1) influenced lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. At lower concentrations, resveratrol with quercetin or pterostilbene inhibited synergistically the oxidative injury of membrane lipids At higher concentrations, an additive effect was observed, according to "Antioxidant effect of trans-resveratrol, pterostilbene, quercetin and their combinations in human erythrocytes in vitro" by Mikstacka R, Rimando AM, Ignatowicz E.(2)

3. Breast cancer
In the study of receptor pathways- estrogen receptor (ER) and tyrosine kinase receptors, especially the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and theirs effects on cell-proliferation and in the development of both primary and recurrent breast cancer,
indicated that there is strong evidence to show that several phytochemicals present in berries such as cyanidin, delphinidin, quercetin, kaempferol, ellagic acid, resveratrol and pterostilbene, interact with and alter the effects of these pathways, according to " Influence of Berry-Polyphenols on Receptor Signaling and Cell-Death Pathways: Implications for Breast Cancer Prevention" by Aiyer H, Warri AM, Woode DR, Hilakivi-Clarke L, Clarke R.(3)

4. Anti-adipogenic effects
In the assessment of the effects of garcinol and pterostilbene on cell proliferation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, found that garcinol and pterostilbene caused an inhibition of lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation phase. Garcinol and pterostilbene also significantly up-regulated the gene expression of adiponectin as well as down-regulated the gene expressions of leptin, resistin, and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, garcinol significantly down-regulated the protein expressions of PPARĪ³ and FAS as well as up-regulated the protein expressions of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and adiponectin, according to "Inhibitory effects of garcinol and pterostilbene on cell proliferation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells" by Hsu CL, Lin YJ, Ho CT, Yen GC.(4)

5. Aging and Alzheimer's disease
In the investigation of resveratrol and pterostilbene, a resveratrol derivative, in the protection against age-related diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), found that two months of pterostilbene diet but not resveratrol significantly improved radial arm water maze function in SAMP8 compared with control-fed animals. Neither resveratrol nor pterostilbene increased sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression or downstream markers of sirtuin 1 activation. Importantly, markers of cellular stress, inflammation, and AD pathology were positively modulated by pterostilbene but not resveratrol and were associated with upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha expression, according to "Low-dose pterostilbene, but not resveratrol, is a potent neuromodulator in aging and Alzheimer's disease" by Chang J, Rimando A, Pallas M, Camins A, Porquet D, Reeves J, Shukitt-Hale B, Smith MA, Joseph JA, Casadesus G.(5)

6. Cholesterol
In the investigation of whether resveratrol and its three analogues (pterostilbene, piceatannol, and resveratrol trimethyl ether) would activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) isoform, found that the maximal luciferase activity responses to pterostilbene were higher than those obtained with the hypolipidemic drug, ciprofibrate (33910 and 19460 relative luciferase units, respectively), at 100 microM. Hypercholesterolemic hamsters fed with pterostilbene at 25 ppm of the diet showed 29% lower plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 7% higher plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and 14% lower plasma glucose as compared to the control group. The LDL/HDL ratio was also statistically significantly lower for pterostilbene, as compared to results for the control animals, at this diet concentration, according to "Pterostilbene, a new agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-isoform, lowers plasma lipoproteins and cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamsters" by Rimando AM, Nagmani R, Feller DR, Yokoyama W.(6)

7. Atherosclerosis
In the determination of the effect of Pterostilbene (PT) on Vascular endothelial cell (VEC) apoptosis, the main event occurring during the development of atherosclerosis, found that Cotreatment with PT and siRNA of LOX-1 synergistically reduced oxLDL-induced apoptosis in HUVECs. Overexpression of LOX-1 attenuated the protection by PT and suppressed the effects of PT on oxLDL-induced oxidative stress. PT may protect HUVECs against oxLDL-induced apoptosis by downregulating LOX-1-mediated activation through a pathway involving oxidative stress, p53, mitochondria, cytochrome c and caspase protease. PT might be a potential natural anti-apoptotic agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis, according to "Pterostilbene protects vascular endothelial cells against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo" by Zhang L, Zhou G, Song W, Tan X, Guo Y, Zhou B, Jing H, Zhao S, Chen L.(7)

8. Adjuvant arthritis
In the evaluation of the effects of pinosylvin (PIN) and pterostilbene (PTE), natural substances from the stilbenoid group, on the development of adjuvant arthritis in rats, found that the effect of PTE on CL was only partial. PIN, on the other hand, had a beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect on oxidative stress induced biochemical changes occurring in AA, as determined by all three functional parameters, according to "In vivo effect of pinosylvin and pterostilbene in the animal model of adjuvant arthritis" by Macickova T, Drabikova K, Nosal R, Bauerova K, Mihalova D, Harmatha J, Pecivova J.(8)

9. Bladder cancer
In the study of Pterostilbene (PT), a naturally occurring phytoalexin, and its effects in a variety of pharmacologic activities, including antioxidant, cancer prevention activity and cytotoxicity to many cancers, found that PT causes autophagy in cancer cells and suggests that PT could serve as a new and promising agent for the treatment of sensitive and chemoresistant bladder cancer cells, according to "Pterostilbene induces autophagy and apoptosis in sensitive and chemoresistant human bladder cancer cells" by Chen RJ, Ho CT, Wang YJ.(9)

10. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the examination of the molecular mechanisms of the action of pterostilbene in colon cancer,
indicated that A combination of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IFN-gamma, and bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide) induced inflammation-related genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, which was significantly suppressed by treatment with pterostilbene. We further identified upstream signaling pathways contributing to the anti-inflammatory activity of pterostilbene by investigating multiple signaling pathways, including nuclear factor-kappaB, Janus-activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, according to "Anti-inflammatory action of pterostilbene is mediated through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in colon cancer cells" by Paul S, Rimando AM, Lee HJ, Ji Y, Reddy BS, Suh N.(10)

11. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20061362
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20108046
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22300613
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22094440
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21982274
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15853379
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21928089
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21187826
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20603834
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19549798