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Saturday, 2 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 10 Health Benefits of Stigmasterol

Stigmasterol is a phytochemincal in the class of Phytosterols, belonging to the group of Lipids, found abundantly in , legumes, nuts, seeds, unpasteurized milk, buckwheat. etc.

Health Benefits
1. Anti-osteoarthritic effects
In the investigation of the effects of stigmasterol, a plant sterol, on the inflammatory mediators and metalloproteinases produced by chondrocytes, found that stigmasterol inhibits several pro-inflammatory and matrix degradation mediators typically involved in OA-induced cartilage degradation, at least in part through the inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway. These promising results justify further ex vivo and in vivo investigations with stigmasterol, according to "Stigmasterol: a phytosterol with potential anti-osteoarthritic properties" by Gabay O, Sanchez C, Salvat C, Chevy F, Breton M, Nourissat G, Wolf C, Jacques C, Berenbaum F.(1)

2. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects
In the evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of the oxidized derivatives of β-sitosterol and determined that phytosterol oxidation products (POP) have a similar but less potent toxicity compared to their cholesterol equivalents, found that the antioxidants α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and β-carotene did not protect against apoptosis induced by 7β-OH and diepoxide stigmasterol; however, α-tocopherol was found to protect against epoxydiol-induced apoptosis. The cellular antioxidant, glutathione, was depleted and the apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, was down-regulated by the stigmasterol oxides identified as apoptotic, according to "Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the oxidized derivatives of stigmasterol in the U937 human monocytic cell line" by O'Callaghan YC, Foley DA, O'Connell NM, McCarthy FO, Maguire AR, O'Brien NM.(2)

3. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities
In the investigation of Phytochemical, antimicrobial and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH)-radical scavenging investigations of the hexane and EtOAc extracts of the stem bark of M. barteri for the first time, found that seven compounds, including two guanidine alkaloids: millaurine (2) and milletonine (7); one flavonoid: afzelin (6); four sterols: β-sitosterol (1), β-sitosterol glucoside (3), mixture of stigmasterol (4) and β-sitosterol (5) palmitates isolated from stem bark of hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of M. barteri. These extracts showed antimicrobial activity on the set of germs tested with minimum inhibitory concentration values varying from 64 to 512 µg/mL, as well as antioxidant activity (IC50 62.74 and 77.23 µg/mL), according to "Chemical constituents of Millettia barteri and their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities" by Havyarimana L, Ndendoung ST, Tamokou Jde D, Atchadé Ade T, Tanyi JM.(3)

4. Ameliorating effects
In the study of effects of stigmasterol on scopolamine-induced memory impairments using the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze tasks in mice, found that stigmasterol-induced cognitive ameliorative effects are mediated by the enhancement of cholinergic neurotransmission system via the activation of estrogen or NMDA receptors, according to "The ameliorating effects of stigmasterol on scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice" by Park SJ, Kim DH, Jung JM, Kim JM, Cai M, Liu X, Hong JG, Lee CH, Lee KR, Ryu JH.(4)

5. Anti-snake venom activities
In the investigation of the anti-snake venom properties of callus of crude extracts of S. saponaria, found that Sapindus saponaria extracts (B and C) and fractions (A1 and A2) showed β-sitosterol and stigmasterol as their main compounds of presented anti-ophidian activity and could be used as an adjuvant to serum therapy or for its supplementation, and in addition, as a rich source of potential inhibitors of enzymes involved in several pathophysiological human and animal diseases, according to "Anti-snake venom activities of extracts and fractions from callus cultures of Sapindus saponaria" by da Silva ML, Marcussi S, Fernandes RS, Pereira PS, Januário AH, França SC, Da Silva SL, Soares AM, Lourenço MV.(5)

6. Birth control
In the investigation of stigmasterol derivative and the effects of petroleum ether extract of C. coromandelina (PECC) aerial parts on the onset of reproductive maturity and the ovarian steroidogenesis in immature female mice, found that the isolated compound was characterized as stigmasterol derivative. PECC treatment caused a remarkable delay (30.27 and 18.56%, respectively, by low dose) in sexual maturity compared to vehicle control as evidenced by the age of vaginal opening and appearance of first estrus (cornified smear). PECC treatment also caused a significant fall (58.6 and 50.0%, respectively, by low dose) in Δ(5)-3β-HSD and G 6-PDH activities involved in ovarian steroidogenesis compared to vehicle control. Total cholesterol and ascorbic acid content in ovaries and carbonic anhydrase activity in uterus were increased significantly (low dose by 49.3, 424.6 and 82.4%, respectively) along with a reduction in the weight of ovary, uterus and pituitary in comparison to that of control, according to "Fractionation of stigmasterol derivative and study of the effects of Celsia coromandelina aerial parts petroleum ether extract on appearance of puberty and ovarian steroidogenesis in immature mice" by Pal D, Mazumder UK, Gupta M.(6)

7. Antihyperlipidemic activity
In the determination of the Antihyperlipidemic activity of the methanol extract obtained from the fruits of the plant L. siceraria showed a positive Liebermann-Burchard test for sterols including fucosterol (1), racemosol (2), stigmasterol (3), and stigmasta-7,22-dien-3β,4β-diol (4), significant reductions in lipid profiles which included cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL. In addition, a significant increase in HDL cholesterol observed, which is a good cholesterol that protects hearts from coronary artery diseases, according to "Isolation of phytosterols and antihyperlipidemic activity of Lagenaria siceraria" by Kalsait RP, Khedekar PB, Saoji AN, Bhusari KP.(7)

8. Anti inflammatory effect
In the determination of three new labdane-type diterpenes 1-3, named coronarins G-I as well as seven known 4-10, coronarin D, coronarin D methyl ether, hedyforrestin C, (E)-nerolidol, β-sitosterol, daucosterol, and stigmasterol isolated from rhizomes of Hedychium coronarium used for the treatment of inflammation, skin diseases, headache, and sharp pain due to rheumatism in traditional medicine, showed inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Among of them, compounds 1, 2, and 6 were significant inhibitors of LPS-stimulated TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 productions with IC(50) ranging from 0.19±0.11 to 10.38±2.34 μM, according to "Chemical constituents of the rhizomes of Hedychium coronarium and their inhibitory effect on the pro-inflammatory cytokines production LPS-stimulated in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells" by Kiem PV, Thuy NT, Anh Hle T, Nhiem NX, Minh CV, Yen PH, Ban NK, Hang DT, Tai BH, Tuyen NV, Mathema VB, Koh YS, Kim YH.(8)

9. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties
In the assessment of the antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of Dichloromethane and methanol extracts isolated from from Marrubium deserti de Noé. Six of them were known compounds (a mixture of the isomers cyllenin A and 15-epi-cyllenin A, marrubiin, marrulactone, marrulibacetal and β-stigmasterol) and seven known phenolic compounds were also isolated: apigenin and several 7-O-substituted derivatives (apigenin-7-O-β-neohesperidoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, terniflorin and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide) together with two phenylethanoid glucosides (acteoside and forsythoside B) found that some of the isolated compounds like phenylethanoid derivatives showed stronger antioxidant capacity than trolox and were also able to significantly inhibit β-galactosidase induction caused by the mutagen agent nitrofurantoin, according to "Antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of compounds isolated from Marrubium deserti de Noé" by Zaabat N, Hay AE, Michalet S, Darbour N, Bayet C, Skandrani I, Chekir-Ghedira L, Akkal S, Dijoux-Franca MG.(9)

10. Antibacterial effect
In the evaluation of the dichloromethane extract from Aristolochia brevipes (Rhizoma) and the compounds isolated from this extract against several mycobacterial strains, sensitive, resistant (monoresistant), and clinical isolates (multidrug-resistant), using the alamarBlue™ microassay,
the extract fractionated by column chromatography, yielding the following eight major compounds: (1) 6α-7-dehydro-N-formylnornantenine; (2) E/Z-N-formylnornantenine; (3) 7,9-dimethoxytariacuripyrone; (4) 9-methoxy-tariacuripyrone; (5) aristololactam I; (6) β-sitosterol; (7) stigmasterol; and (8) 3-hydroxy-α-terpineol showed that The most active compound against all mycobacterial strains tested was the compound aristolactam I (5), with MIC values ranging between 12.5 and 25 µg/mL. To our knowledge, this the first report of antimycobacterial activity in this plant, according to "Antibacterial activity of Aristolochia brevipes against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis" by Navarro-García VM, Luna-Herrera J, Rojas-Bribiesca MG, Álvarez-Fitz P, Ríos MY.(10)

11. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19786147
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20828195
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22338120
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22173129
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22133075
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22092072
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22076759
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22071304
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21924316
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21876482