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Saturday, 2 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 10 Health Benefits of Gamma-linolenic Acid

Gamma-linolenic acid is a phytochemincalsin the group of Omega-3, 6,9 fatty acids, belonging the class of Lipids, found abundantly in evening primrose, borage, blackcurrant, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Neuropathic symptoms
in the evaluation of the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and the beneficial effect of physical exercise on positive sensory symptoms and neuropathic pain in patients with compressive radiculopathy syndrome from disc-nerve root conflict, found that oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) for six weeks in synergy with rehabilitation therapy improved neuropathic symptoms and deficits in patients with radicular neuropathy, according to "The use of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and rehabilitation in the treatment of back pain: effect on health-related quality of life" by Ranieri M, Sciuscio M, Cortese AM, Santamato A, Di Teo L, Ianieri G, Bellomo RG, Stasi M, Megna M.(1)

2. Anti inflammatory effects
In the evaluation of wheather The PUFAs of omega-3 and omega-6 series play a significant role in health and disease by generating potent modulatory molecules for inflammatory responses,
found that GLA and its metabolites also affect expression of various genes where by regulating the levels of gene products including matrix proteins. These gene products play a significant role in immune functions and also in cell death (apoptosis). The present review will emphasize the role of GLA in modulating inflammatory response, and hence its potential applications as an anti-inflammatory nutrient or adjuvant, according to "Gamma linolenic acid: an antiinflammatory omega-6 fatty acid" by Kapoor R, Huang YS.(2)

3. Brain tumor
In the investigation of the effects of oral consumption of gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on brain tumor fatty acid composition, showed that dietary supplementation of DHA containing oil could be an effective way to increase levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in brain tumors and this increase may be mediated partly by up-regulation of FABP7 expression, according to "The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty acids composition and fatty acid binding protein 7 mRNA expression" by Nasrollahzadeh J, Siassi F, Doosti M, Eshraghian MR, Shokri F, Modarressi MH, Mohammadi-Asl J, Abdi K, Nikmanesh A, Karimian SM.(3)

4. Proliferation diseases
In the determination of a controversial dietary approaches focused on the diverse function of dihomo-dietary gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) in anti-inflammation and anti-proliferation diseases, especially for cancers, found that hese compounds possess both anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. PGE1 could also induce growth inhibition and differentiation of cancer cells. Although the mechanism of DGLA has not yet been elucidated, it is significant to anticipate the antitumor potential benefits from DGLA, according to "Multiple roles of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid against proliferation diseases" by Wang X, Lin H, Gu Y.(4)

5. Human health and nutrition
In the deiermination of weather a controversial dietary approaches has been the possible prophylactic role of dietary gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in treating various chronic disease states, showed that these compounds possess both anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Although an optimal feeding regimen to maximize the potential benefits of dietary GLA has not yet been determined, it is the purpose of this review to summarize the most recent research that has focused on objectively and reproducibly determining the mechanism(s) by which GLA may ameliorate health problems, according to "Importance of dietary gamma-linolenic acid in human health and nutrition" by Fan YY, Chapkin RS.(5)

6. Skin protection
in the elucidation of the effect of GLA-rich oil on skin function, found that the mechanism of improvement of skin barrier has been associated with possible generation of anti-inflammatory metabolites from GLA. The clinical physician also confirmed that none of the subjects showed any noteworthy side effects. GLA-enriched food appears to be safe and to improve skin barrier function in subjects with dry skin conditions and mild atopic dermatitis, according to 'Dietary supplementation of gamma-linolenic acid improves skin parameters in subjects with dry skin and mild atopic dermatitis" by Kawamura A, Ooyama K, Kojima K, Kachi H, Abe T, Amano K, Aoyama T.(6)

7. Drug-sensitive and resistant tumor cells
In the investigation of weather dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) and AA, EPA and DHA have cytotoxic action on both vincristine-sensitive (KB-3-1) and resistant (KB-Ch(R)-8-5) cancer cells in vitro, indicated that GLA, DGLA, AA, EPA and DHA enhanced the uptake and decreased efflux in both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cells and augmented the susceptibility of tumor cells especially, of drug-resistant cells to the cytotoxic action of vincristine. These results suggest that certain polyunsaturated fatty acids have tumoricidal action and are capable of enhancing the cytotoxic action of anti-cancer drugs specifically, on drug-resistant cells by enhancing drug uptake and reducing its efflux. Thus, polyunsaturated fatty acids either by themselves or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs have the potential as anti-cancer molecules, according to "Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on drug-sensitive and resistant tumor cells in vitro" by Das UN, Madhavi N.(7)

8. Acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
In the assessment of the effect of an enteral diet enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), and anti-oxidants on the incidence of organ dysfunction and nosocomial infections in septic patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) compared with a standard enteral diet, found that A diet enriched with EPA, GLA, and anti-oxidants does not improve gas exchange or decrease the incidence of novel organ failures in critically ill septic patients with acute lung injury or ARDS. Patients treated with the EPA-GLA diet stayed in the ICU for less time, but we did not find any differences in infectious complications, according to "Effect of an enteral diet enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid and anti-oxidants on the outcome of mechanically ventilated, critically ill, septic patients" by Grau-Carmona T, Morán-García V, García-de-Lorenzo A, Heras-de-la-Calle G, Quesada-Bellver B, López-Martínez J, González-Fernández C, Montejo-González JC, Blesa-Malpica A, Albert-Bonamusa I, Bonet-Saris A, Herrero-Meseguer JI, Mesejo A, Acosta J.(8)

9. Antineoplastic effects
In the investigation of the effect and the mechanism of gamma linolenic acid (GLA) treatment on human hepatocellular (HCC) cell lines, showed that GLA treatment has induced cell growth inhibition, ROS generation including lipid peroxidation, and HO-1 production for antioxidant protection against oxidative stress caused by GLA in Huh7 cells. GLA treatment should be considered as a therapeutic modality in patients with advanced HCC, according to "Antineoplastic effects of gamma linolenic Acid on hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines' by Itoh S, Taketomi A, Harimoto N, Tsujita E, Rikimaru T, Shirabe K, Shimada M, Maehara Y.(9)

10. Chronic myelogenous leukemia
In the testing the apoptotic effect of GLA on human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells,
showed that the apoptosis could be inhibited by a pancaspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk), suggesting the involvement of caspases. Further, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP were found in GLA-induced apoptosis.GLA treatment could also elevate lipid peroxidation in K562 cells, and antioxidant alpha-tocopherol could reverse the cytotoxicity of GLA. The saturated fatty acid SA, which did not exhibit significant increase in lipid peroxidation, also did not induce cytotoxicity. Intracellular GSH was also determined, and there was no marked change of GSH levels in cells after incubation with GLA compared with the control. These results demonstrate that GLA could induce apoptosis in K562 cells. Apoptosis is mediated by release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3. Lipid peroxidation may play a role in GLA cytotoxicity, according to "Gamma-linolenic acid induces apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells" by Ge H, Kong X, Shi L, Hou L, Liu Z, Li P.(10)

11. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19887043
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17168669
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19014610
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22333072
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9732298
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22123240
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21917129
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21474219
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20664735
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19356705