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Sunday, 10 November 2013

Phytochemicals - 12 Health Benefits of Rutin

Rutin also known as rutoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and sophorin is a Flavonols, belong to Flavonoids (polyphenols) of Phenolic compounds found orange, grapefruit, lemon, lime, berries mulberry, cranberries, buckwheat etc.

Health Benefits
1. Platelet aggregation
In the research of methanol extract of Sophora japonic, containing the isolation of four flavonoids and six flavonoid-glycosides: biochanin A (1), irisolidone (2), genistein (3), sissotrin (4), sophorabioside (5), genistin (6), tectoridin (7), apigenin (8), quercitrin (9), and rutin (10) and its effect on anti-platelet activity, found that compounds, 1, 3, and 7 showed approximately 2.5-6.5 fold greater inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid (AA) and U46619 induced platelet aggregation (IC50: 19.9 and 99.8 microM; 20.3 and 53.8 microM; 25.9 and 123.4 microM, respectively) than acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, IC50: 63.0 and 350.0 microM). Compound 2 was an approximately 22-40 fold stronger inhibitor than ASA on AA and U46619 induced aggregation (IC50: 1.6 and 15.6 microM, respectively), according to the study of "Anti-platelet effects of flavonoids and flavonoid-glycosides from Sophora japonica" by Kim JM, Yun-Choi HS.(1)

2. Anti-inflammatory activity
In the investigation of Rutin, a natural flavone derivative and its anti inflammatory effect found that Oral administration of rutin reduced rat paw swelling starting 2 hours after lambda-carrageenan injection. Rutin reduced significantly (p < 0.05) and in a dose-dependant manner the polymorphonuclear neutrophils chemotaxis to fMet-Leu-Phe, according to the study of "Anti-inflammatory effect of rutin on rat paw oedema, and on neutrophils chemotaxis and degranulation" by Selloum L, Bouriche H, Tigrine C, Boudoukha C.(2)

3. Diabetes-increased aging effect
In the observation of 1 g.kg-1.day-1 rutin, an aldose reductase inhibitor and irs effect on products from the advanced Maillard reaction which increase during aging and diabetes found that even though rutin prevent the accumulation of fluorescence are unknown, but these observations raise the question of whether they could be identical. If fluorescence is a marker for age-related pathologies and diabetic sequelae, aminoguanidine and rutin could have therapeutic effects in their prevention, according to "Prevention of diabetes-increased aging effect on rat collagen-linked fluorescence by aminoguanidine and rutin" by Odetti PR, Borgoglio A, De Pascale A, Rolandi R, Adezati L.(3)

4. Diabetes, Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia
In the analyzing Dietary antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids and its protection against early-stage diabetes mellitus, found that Rutin (50 mg kg(-1)) reduced (p<0.05) blood glucose and improved the lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetic rats and concluded that that rutin can improve hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia while inhibiting the progression of liver and heart dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats, acccording to "Influence of rutin treatment on biochemical alterations in experimental diabetes" by Fernandes AA, Novelli EL, Okoshi K, Okoshi MP, Di Muzio BP, Guimarães JF, Fernandes Junior A.(4)

5. Fatty liver disease
In evaluation of rutin, a common dietary flavonoid and the hypolipidemic effect of it on fatty liver disease found that rutin could attenuate lipid accumulation by decreasing lipogenesis and oxidative stress in hepatocyte, according to "Rutin inhibits oleic acid induced lipid accumulation via reducing lipogenesis and oxidative stress in hepatocarcinoma cells" by Wu CH, Lin MC, Wang HC, Yang MY, Jou MJ, Wang CJ.(5)

6. Peptic ulcer
In examination of Oroxylum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Olea europaea L., Foeniculum vulgare, Alchornea glandulosa, Tephrosia purpurea, containing phenolic compounds, namely, baicalein, cinnamic acid, oleuropein, rutin, quercetin, and tephrosin, respectively, as active constituents amd theirs effect on Peptic ulcer, the most common gastrointestinal tract (GIT) found that Polyphenols display a number of pharmacological properties in the GIT area, acting as antisecretory, cytoprotective, and antioxidant agents. The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds have been widely studied, but it has become clear that their mechanisms of action go beyond the modulation of oxidative stress. Various polyphenolic compounds have been reported for their anti-ulcerogenic activity with a good level of gastric protection. Besides their action as gastroprotective, according to "Role of phenolic compounds in peptic ulcer: An overview" by Sumbul S, Ahmad MA, Mohd A, Mohd A.(6)

7. Mitochondrial damage
In the confirmation of consumption of diets rich in flavonoids is associated with reduced risk of Mitochondrial damage found that pretreatment with rutin at the dose of 80 mg/kg daily for 42 days to isoproterenol-induced rats prevented all the biochemical alterations. Transmission electron microscopic study also confirmed the protective effects of rutin on the structure of heart mitochondria. Thus, rutin reduced the extent of mitochondrial damage induced by isoproterenol and prevented cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction, according to "Protective effects of rutin on mitochondrial damage in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxic rats: an in vivo and in vitro study" by Punithavathi VR, Shanmugapriya K, Prince PS.(7)

8. Cardiovascular health
In the testing the hypothesis of the consumption of a diet rich in flavonoids can be associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease found that hamster fed with 2% cranberry concentrate powder (HFHC+CE); a HFHC with 0.1% rutin (HFHC+Rutin); and a HFHC with 30 mg/kg vitamin E (HFHC+Vit.E) diet for either 12 or 20 weeks, found that Ratios of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and of plasma HDL-C to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in animals consuming HFHC+Vit.E, according to the strudy of "Effects of a flavonol-rich diet on select cardiovascular parameters in a Golden Syrian hamster model" by Kalgaonkar S, Gross HB, Yokoyama W, Keen CL.(8)

9. Ischemia-reperfusion brain injury-related disorders
In the investigation of rutin's effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury caused by free radical induced neural damage found that the elevated level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), H(2)O(2) and protein carbonyl (PC) in MCAO group was attenuated significantly in rutin-pretreated group and concluded that rutin treatment may represent a novel approach in lowering the risk or improving the function of ischemia-reperfusion brain injury-related disorders, according to Rutin protects the neural damage induced by transient focal ischemia in rats" by Khan MM, Ahmad A, Ishrat T, Khuwaja G, Srivastawa P, Khan MB, Raza SS, Javed H, Vaibhav K, Khan A, Islam F.(9)

10. Degenerative diseases
In the affirmation of rutin and its effect on against several degenerative diseases and particularly brain diseases found that The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus flavonoids can play a key role in their activity against several degenerative diseases and particularly brain diseases. Diosmin and rutin have a demonstrated activity as a venotonic agent and are present in several pharmaceutical products, according to "Update on uses and properties of citrus flavonoids: new findings in anticancer, cardiovascular, and anti-inflammatory activity" by Benavente-García O, Castillo J.(10)

11. Periodontal disease
In the study of isolation from the mouths of 2 healthy subjects, hydrolysed innocuous rutin, a flavonoid glycoside, to its genotoxic aglycon quercetin and its effect on local carcinogenic process found that a hypothesis for a novel role of the oral microflora in a disease process other than caries and periodontal disease, namely intra-oral cancer, is presented. The possibility of a bacterial liberation of the genotoxic quercetin in situ could be but one example of its involvement in the local carcinogenic process, according to "Activation of rutin by human oral bacterial isolates to the carcinogen-mutagen quercetin" by Parisis DM, Pritchard ET.(11)

12. Anti cancer
In the investigation of Tilia × viridis, a Tilia species distributed widely in Buenos Aires, Argentin and its anti oxidantive effect found that the extract was found to present a selective antiproliferative activity on a lymphoma cell line and this was related to free radical scavenging activity. In addition, one of its main compounds, rutin, showed antioxidant effects related to peroxidase activity. T. × viridis may therefore be a source of antioxidant compounds that contribute to a selective antiproliferative action on tumoral cells, acting by modulation of H(2)O(2) levels, according to "HPLC fingerprint of a flower extract of Tilia × viridis and correlation with antiproliferative and antioxidant activity" by Marrassini C, Anesini C, Ferraro G.(12)

13. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18704331
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12710715
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2354746
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19932588
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21535797
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21966156
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20532835
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20136443
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19631195
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18593176
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6579892
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21953709