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Friday, 8 November 2013

Phytochemicals - 11 Health Benefits of Silybin

Silybin is aslo known as Silibinin (INN), the major active ingredient of silymarin, a flavanone, found in the milk thistle seeds.

Health Benefits
1. Anti cancers
In the investigation of the synthesis of various silybin monogalloyl esters and its anti cancers effect found that the most effective compound from this series (7-O-galloylsilybin) has also been prepared from stereochemically pure silybins A and B to evaluate the effect of stereochemistry on the activity. As with silybin itself, the B isomer of 7-O-galloylsilybin was more active than the A isomer, according to "Synthesis and antiangiogenic activity of new silybin galloyl esters" by Gažák R, Valentová K, Fuksová K, Marhol P, Kuzma M, Medina MÁ, Oborná I, Ulrichová J, Křen V.(1)

2. Antioxidants in vascular calcification
In the identification of natural antioxidants in the process of vascular calcification found that
Curcumin and silybin were the more effective, inhibiting both reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase and muscle cells (VSMCs) mineralization, according to "Natural antioxidants and vascular calcification: a possible benefit" by Roman-Garcia P, Barrio-Vazquez S, Fernandez-Martin JL, Ruiz-Torres MP, Cannata-Andia JB.(2)

3. Liver diseases
In the observation of Silymarin from the milk thistle plant Silybum marianum and its anti liver diseases effect found that the efficacy of silymarin may be more readily observed in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients because of their higher flavonolignan plasma concentrations and more extensive enterohepatic cycling compared with those in HCV patients, according to the study of "Differences in the Disposition of Silymarin between Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Chronic Hepatitis C" by Schrieber SJ, Hawke RL, Wen Z, Smith PC, Reddy KR, Wahed AS, Belle SH, Afdhal NH, Navarro VJ, Meyers CM, Doo E, Fried MW.(3)

4. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the evaluation of Silymarin, derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Milk thistle and its anti inflammatory effect in chronic hepatitis C patient found that Silymarin exerts anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects, and suggest that complementary and alternative medicine-based approaches may assist in the management of patients with chronic hepatitis C, according to "Inhibition of T-cell inflammatory cytokines, hepatocyte NF-kappaB signaling, and HCV infection by standardized Silymarin" by Polyak SJ, Morishima C, Shuhart MC, Wang CC, Liu Y, Lee DY.(4)

5. Prostate cancer
In the analyzing silibinin, a polyphenolic flavonolignan derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianium) and it effects in prostate cancer found that 13 g of oral silybin-phytosome daily, in 3 divided doses, appears to be well tolerated in patients with advanced prostate cancer and is the recommended phase II dose. Asymptomatic liver toxicity is the most commonly seen adverse event, according to "A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of silybin-phytosome in prostate cancer patients" by Flaig TW, Gustafson DL, Su LJ, Zirrolli JA, Crighton F, Harrison GS, Pierson AS, Agarwal R, Glodé LM.(5)

6. Memory impairment
In demonstration of silibinin and it effect in brain energy metabolism found that pretreatment with silibinin (100 and 200mg/kg, po) attenuated STZ induced memory impairment by reducing oxidative and nitrosative stress and synaptosomal calcium ion level. Further, silibinin dose dependently restored ATP level indicating improvement in brain energy metabolism, according to "Improvement of brain energy metabolism and cholinergic functions contributes to the beneficial effects of silibinin against streptozotocin induced memory impairment" by Tota S, Kamat PK, Shukla R, Nath C.(6)

7. Bladder cancer
In the investigation of silibinin and it effect on bladder cancer found that oral silibinin suppressed the growth of 5637 xenografts, which was accompanied with the activation of caspase-3, downregulation of survivin, and increased translocation of AIF. Furthermore, intravesical silibinin effectively inhibited the carcinogenesis and progression of bladder cancer in rats initiated by MNU by reducing the incidence of superficial and invasive bladder lesions without any side effects, which was accompanied with proapoptotic effects, according to "Chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of intravesical silibinin against bladder cancer by acting on mitochondria" by Zeng J, Sun Y, Wu K, Li L, Zhang G, Yang Z, Wang Z, Zhang D, Xue Y, Chen Y, Zhu G, Wang X, He D.(7)

(8) Fibrosarcoma
In the study of silibinin and it effects in fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells found that silibinin-induced autophagy was a positive regulator of apoptotic cell death, it was possible that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p38-NF-κB mediated silibinin-induced autophagy and eventually led to cell death, according to "Silibinin activated ROS-p38-NF-κB positive feedback and induced autophagic death in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells" by Duan WJ, Li QS, Xia MY, Tashiro S, Onodera S, Ikejima T.(8)

9. Alzheimer's disease (AD)
In the demonstration of silibinin and its effect on Aβ aggregation found that silibinin prevented SH-SY5Y cells from injuries caused by Aβ(1-42)-induced oxidative stress by decreasing H(2)O(2) production in Aβ(1-42)-stressed neurons. Taken together, these results indicate that silibinin may be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD, according to "Silibinin: A novel inhibitor of Aβ aggregation" by Yin F, Liu J, Ji X, Wang Y, Zidichouski J, Zhang J.(9)

10. Breast cancer
in the investigation of Silibinin, a natural flavonoid and its anti breast cancer cell MCF7 and T47D found that apoptotic events in both cell types differ temporally and also by magnitude that involved mitochondrial and caspase-8 activation pathway. These results have relevance in understanding silibinin treatment to breast tumor, according to "Silibinin-induced apoptosis in MCF7 and T47D human breast carcinoma cells involves caspase-8 activation and mitochondrial pathway" by Tiwari P, Kumar A, Balakrishnan S, Kushwaha HS, Mishra KP.(10)

11. Acute Myeloid leukemia (AML)
in the researcher of silibinin on proliferation and apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cells found that the cross-talk mechanism mediated by caspase-8-dependent Bid cleavage can contribute to the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by curcumin + carnosic acid. Collectively, these results suggest a mechanistic basis for the potential use of dietary plant polyphenol combinations in the treatment and prevention of AML, according to "Distinct combinatorial effects of the plant polyphenols curcumin, carnosic acid, and silibinin on proliferation and apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cells" by Pesakhov S, Khanin M, Studzinski GP, Danilenko M.(11)

12. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21928794
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21928237
(3) http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/early/2011/08/24/dmd.111.040212.abstract
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17484885
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17077998
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21382422
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21220495
(8) http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10286020.2010.540757?journalCode=ganp20
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21185897
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21166494
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20661831