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Sunday, 10 November 2013

Phytochemicals - 11 Health Benefits of Naringenin

Naringenin, a flavanone, belonging to the red, blue, purple pigments of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found predominantly in citrus fruits is considered as one of powerful antioxiant with many health benefits.

Health benefits
1. Antioxidant, radical scavenging and biomolecule activity
In the affirmation of the capacity of flavonoid naringenin and its glycoside naringin in the comparison of theirs antioxidant capacities, radical scavenging and biomolecule activities found that naringenin exhibited higher antioxidant capacity and hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenger efficiency than naringin and both flavanones were equally effective in reducing DNA damage. However, they show no protective effect on oxidation of GSH, according to the study of "Antioxidant properties, radical scavenging activity and biomolecule protection capacity of flavonoid naringenin and its glycoside naringin: a comparative study" by Cavia-Saiz M, Busto MD, Pilar-Izquierdo MC, Ortega N, Perez-Mateos M, Muñiz P.(1)

2. Colon cancer
In the comparison of flavonoids and limonoids and theirs effects on colon cancer found that The ability of dietary apigenin and naringenin to reduce HMACF, lower proliferation (naringenin only) and increase apoptosis may contribute toward colon cancer prevention, according to "Apigenin and naringenin suppress colon carcinogenesis through the aberrant crypt stage in azoxymethane-treated rats" by Leonardi T, Vanamala J, Taddeo SS, Davidson LA, Murphy ME, Patil BS, Wang N, Carroll RJ, Chapkin RS,Lupton JR, Turner ND.(2)

3. Lung metastasis
In the investigation of Naringenin and its defect in lung metastasis in a breast cancer found that orally administered naringenin significantly decreased the number of metastatic tumor cells in the lung and extended the life span of tumor resected mice. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that T cells displayed enhanced antitumor activity in naringenin treated mice, with an increased proportion of IFN-γ and IL-2 expressing T cells, according to the study of "Naringenin reduces lung metastasis in a breast cancer resection model" by Qin L, Jin L, Lu L, Lu X, Zhang C, Zhang F, Liang W.(3)

4. Anti cancers and tumors
In the study of Naringenin and its anti cancer and tumor effects found that NGEN promotes apoptosis in rat C6 glioma model by promoting the apoptotic effect, modulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio leads to release of Cyt C from mitochondria, thereby activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 is mediated by enhanced expression of Cx43, according to "Naringenin promote apoptosis in cerebrally implanted C6 glioma cells" by Sabarinathan D, Mahalakshmi P, Vanisree AJ.(4)

5. Pulmonary fibrosis
In the analyzing Naringenin and its effect in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis which can lead to lung cancer found that Naringenin significantly reduces lung metastases in mice with pulmonary fibrosis and increases their survival by improving the immunosuppressive environment through down-regulating transforming growth factor-beta1 and reducing regulatory T cells. Naringenin could be an ideal therapeutic agent in the treatment of both cancer and fibrosis, according to "Naringenin: a potential immunomodulator for inhibiting lung fibrosis and metastasis" by Du G, Jin L, Han X, Song Z, Zhang H, Liang W.(5)

6. Multidrug-resistant cancer cells
In the observation of 12 phenolic compounds, including three stilbenes, two flavonoids, two coumarins, one neolignan, and four lignans, isolated from Euphorbia and Pycnanthus species or obtained by derivatization and theirs effects against multidrug-resistant human cancer cells found that the most active compound was the flavonoid naringenin, found to be 15-fold more effective against the atypical MDR subline of gastric carcinoma than in parental drug-sensitive cells, according to "Phenolic compounds as selective antineoplasic agents against multidrug-resistant human cancer cells' by Duarte N, Lage H, Abrantes M, Ferreira MJ.(6)

7. Hepatic lipid metabolism
In the examination of
naringenin and its effect of disruption of lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis which may contribute to an important factor in the development of prevalent metabolic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis found that naringenin regulates the activity of nuclear receptors PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and LXRalpha as it activates the ligand-binding domain of both PPARalpha and PPARgamma, while inhibiting LXRalpha in GAL4-fusion reporters, according to "Transcriptional regulation of human and rat hepatic lipid metabolism by the grapefruit flavonoid naringenin: role of PPARalpha, PPARgamma and LXRalpha" by Goldwasser J, Cohen PY, Yang E, Balaguer P, Yarmush ML, Nahmias Y.(7)

8. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
In the evaluation of naringenin and its effect Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection found that naringenin is a non-toxic assembly inhibitor of HCV and that other PPARα agonists play a similar role in blocking viral production. The combination of naringenin with STAT-C agents could potentially bring a rapid reduction in HCV levels during the early treatment phase, an outcome associated with sustained virological response, according to "Naringenin inhibits the assembly and long-term production of infectious hepatitis C virus particles through a PPAR-mediated mechanism" by Goldwasser J, Cohen PY, Lin W, Kitsberg D, Balaguer P, Polyak SJ, Chung RT, Yarmush ML, Nahmias Y.(8)

9. Cholesterol-lowering activity
In the affirmation of naringenin and its Cholesterol-lowering effect found that naringenin lowers the plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations by suppressing HMG-CoA reductase and ACAT in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, according to "Cholesterol-lowering activity of naringenin via inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase in rats" by Lee SH, Park YB, Bae KH, Bok SH, Kwon YK, Lee ES, Choi MS.(9)

10. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the evaluation of the mechanisms of action of the effective compounds. Flavone, the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, the flavonols isorhamnetin, kaempferol and quercetin, the flavanone naringenin, and the anthocyanin pelargonidin amd theirs anti-inflammatory effects found that they inhibited iNOS protein and mRNA expression and also NO production in a dose-dependent manner, according to "Anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids: genistein, kaempferol, quercetin, and daidzein inhibit STAT-1 and NF-kappaB activations, whereas flavone, isorhamnetin, naringenin, and pelargonidin inhibit only NF-kappaB activation along with their inhibitory effect on iNOS expression and NO production in activated macrophages" by Hämäläinen M, Nieminen R, Vuorela P, Heinonen M, Moilanen E.(10)

11. Immunity
In the unvestigation of Naringenin, a flavonoid in grapefruits and citrus fruits and its effec in immune system found that naringenin potently suppressed picryl chloride (PCl)-induced contact hypersensitivity by inhibiting the proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes. In vitro, both of the activated hapten-specific T cells and the T cells stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 showed growth arrest after naringenin treatment, according to "A novel regulatory mechanism of naringenin through inhibition of T lymphocyte function in contact hypersensitivity suppression" by Fang F, Tang Y, Gao Z, Xu Q.(11)

12. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20394007
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20511675
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21748601
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20717707
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19318568
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20157880
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20811644
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21354229
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10545673
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18274639
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20471963