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Friday, 8 November 2013

Phytochemicals - 10 Health Benefits of Thearubigins

Thearubigins with reddish colour, is a phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), formed in tea leaves during fermentation.

Health Benefits
1. Tetanus toxin
In the elucidation of the mechanism of the protective effect of black tea extract's thearubigin fraction against the action of tetanus toxin, found that thearubigin fraction mixed with tetanus toxin blocked the inhibitory effect of the toxin. Mixing iodinated toxin with thearubigin fraction inhibited the specific binding of [125I]tetanus toxin to the synaptosomal membrane preparation. The effects of thearubigin fraction were dose-dependent, according to "A mechanism of the thearubigin fraction of black tea (Camellia sinensis) extract protecting against the effect of tetanus toxin" by Satoh E, Ishii T, Shimizu Y, Sawamura S, Nishimura M.(1)

2. Inflammatory bowel disease
in the examination of examine the protective effects of thearubigin, an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant beverage derivative, on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice, a model for inflammatory bowel disease, found that pretreatment of mice with thearubigin (40 mg kg(-1) day(-1), i.g. for 10 days) significantly ameliorated the appearance of diarrhoea and the disruption of colonic architecture. Higher dose (100 mg kg(-1)) had comparable effects. This was associated with a significant reduction in the degree of both neutrophil infiltration and lipid peroxidation in the inflamed colon as well as decreased serine protease activity. Thearubigin also reduced the levels of NO and O(2)(-) associated with the favourable expression of T-helper 1 cytokines and iNOS, according to "Thearubigin, the major polyphenol of black tea, ameliorates mucosal injury in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis" by Maity S, Ukil A, Karmakar S, Datta N, Chaudhuri T, Vedasiromoni JR, Ganguly DK, Das PK.(2)

3. Prostate cancers
In the comparison of the anti-proliferative effect of black tea (Camellia sinensis) polyphenol, thearubigin (TR), alone or combined with the isoflavone genistein, on human prostate (PC-3) carcinoma cells, found that TR administered alone did not result in any alteration of cell growth. When combined with genistein, however, TR significantly inhibited cell growth and induced a G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in a dose dependent manner. These findings indicate the potential use of combined phytochemicals to provide protection against prostate cancer, according to " Synergistic effects of thearubigin and genistein on human prostate tumor cell (PC-3) growth via cell cycle arrest" by Sakamoto K.(3)

4. A375 melanoma cells
In the observation of observed the role of the three most important MAPK (ERK, JNK, and p38) in TF- and TR-induced apoptosis, found that TF and TR treatment induces a time-dependent increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species generation in A375 cells. Interestingly, treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cystein inhibits TF- and TR-induced JNK and p38 activation as well as induction of cell death in A375 cells. We also provide evidence demonstrating the critical role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 in TF- and TR-induced apoptosis in A375 cells, according to "Role of oxidation-triggered activation of JNK and p38 MAPK in black tea polyphenols induced apoptotic death of A375 cells" by Bhattacharya U, Halder B, Mukhopadhyay S, Giri AK.(4)

5. Anticlastogenic effects
In the investigation of potent antimutagenic and anticlastogenic effects of TF and TR in vitro in human cells in vitro, found that a significant decrease in both CA and MN were observed in the human lymphocyte cultures treated with either TF or TR pretreated with either B[a]P or AFB1 (250, 500, 1000 microg/ml) when compared with B[a]P or AFB1 treated cultures alone. TF shows more protective effects than TR in this in vitro system. These results indicate that both TF and TR have significant anticlastogenic effects in vitro in human lymphocytes, according to "Anticlastogenic effects of black tea polyphenols theaflavins and thearubigins in human lymphocytes in vitro" by Halder B, Pramanick S, Mukhopadhyay S, Giri AK.(5)

6. Antioxidative properties
In the review of the different issues and studies relating to composition, manufacturing, and antioxidative effects of black tea and its components in vitro as well as in vivo, found that Antioxidative properties of black tea are manifested by its ability to inhibit free radical generation, scavenge free radicals, and chelate transition metal ions. Black tea, as well as individual theaflavins, can influence activation of transcription factors such as NFkappaB or AP-1, according to "Antioxidative properties of black tea" by Łuczaj W, Skrzydlewska E.(6)

7. Hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 system
In the investigation of Theaflavins and theafulvins, a fraction of thearubigins, isolated from aqueous infusions of black tea, and their effects on the hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 system, found that treatment with theafulvins and theaflavins reduced the apoprotein levels. A single band in the cytochrome P450 region was evident when the intestinal microsomes were probed with antibodies to CYP4A1 but the level of expression was not affected by the treatment with the black tea polyphenols, according to "Hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 and conjugase activities in rats treated with black tea theafulvins and theaflavins" by Catterall F, McArdle NJ, Mitchell L, Papayanni A, Clifford MN, Ioannides C.(7)

8. Chronic myeloid leukemia
In the observation of the anticancer effect of black tea (BT) and its polyphenols theaflavin (TF) and thearubigin (TR) on U-937 cell line, a myeloid leukemic cell line and on leukemic cells isolated from peripheral blood of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), found that BT, TF and TR. MTT assay showed growth inhibition of metabolically active cells and inhibition of DNA synthesis was observed by 3H-Thymidine incorporation after treatment with the compounds. In all cases TF and TR were more effective than BT, suggesting that these are possibly the active components in BT responsible for its antileukemic activity, according to "Studies with black tea and its constituents on leukemic cells and cell lines" by Das M, Chaudhuri T, Goswami SK, Murmu N, Gomes A, Mitra S, Besra SE, Sur P, Vedasiromoni JR.(8)

9. Oxidative stress
In the investigation of scavenging property of black tea and catechins, the major flavonols of tea-leaf, against damage by oxidative stress, found that Black tea extract in comparison to free catechins seemed to be a better protecting agent against various types of oxidative stress. Apparently, conversion of catechins to partially polymerized products such as theaflavin or thearubigin during 'fermentation' process for making black tea has no deleterious effect on its scavenging properties, according to "Protective role of black tea against oxidative damage of human red blood cells" by Halder J, Bhaduri AN.(9)

10. Antioxidative effects
In the study of the antioxidative activity of theaflavins (TFs) and thearubigin (TR) purified from the infusion of black tea leaves, using the tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogenates, found that activity of black tea was about as potent as that of green tea. These results suggest that black tea infusion containing TFs and TR could inhibit lipid peroxidation in biological conditions in the same way as green tea infusion containing epicatechins, according to "Antioxidative effects of black tea theaflavins and thearubigin on lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogenates induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide" by Yoshino K, Hara Y, Sano M, Tomita I.(10)

11. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12533914
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12787838
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10766429
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19594545
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16314069
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15850895
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12842182
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12636103
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9535765