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Friday, 8 November 2013

Phytochemicals - 10 Health Benefits of Eriodictyol

Eriodictyol is a Flavanones, belonging to the flavonoid in Flavonoids extracted from Yerba Santa, twigs of Millettia duchesnei and certain types of fruit and herb.

Health Benefits
1. Cytoprotective effect
In the study of exact of eriodictyol and its molecular mechanism of the cellular effects found that t eriodictyol may lead to protection of keratinocytes from UV-induced cytotoxicity by modulating both the p38 MAPK and Akt signaling pathways in a phosphatase-dependent manner, according to "Cytoprotective effect of eriodictyol in UV-irradiated keratinocytes via phosphatase-dependent modulation of both the p38 MAPK and Akt signaling pathways" by Lee ER, Kim JH, Choi HY, Jeon K, Cho SG.(1)

2. Anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effect
In the investigation of 10 different flavonoids and assessed their role on UV-induced apoptosis of human keratinocytes, the principal cell type of epidermis found that eriodictyol treatment apparently reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, concomitant with the repression of caspase-3 activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects of eriodictyol were also confirmed in UV-induced cell death of normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) cells, according to "The anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effect of eriodictyol on UV-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes" by Lee ER, Kim JH, Kang YJ, Cho SG.(2)

3. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the evaluation of the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages among the four similar structure flavonoids found that pre-treatment of Raw 264.7 cells with eriodictyol reduced the expression of mRNA and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These inhibitory effects were found to be caused by blockage of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), according to "Anti-inflammatory effects of eriodictyol in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated raw 264.7 murine macrophages" by Lee JK.(3)

4. Capillary electrophoresis
In the investigation of separation of five flavanones and flavanone-7-O-glycosides, including naringenin, hesperetin, eriodictyol, homoeriodictyol, isosakuranetin, and hesperidin and their effect in α-Cyclosophoro-octadecaoses (α-C18), produced by Rhodobacter sphaeroides found that successful chiral separation critically depends on the presence of succinate substituents attached to α-C18 in CE, suggesting that succinoylation of α-C18 is decisive for effective stereoisomeric separation, according to "Stereoisomeric separation of some flavanones using highly succinate-substituted α-cyclosophoro-octadecaoses as chiral additives in capillary electrophoresis' by Kwon C, Jung S.(4)

5. Neoplastic cell transformation
In the demonstration oferiodictyol, a flavanone found in fruits and its suppresses EGF-induced neoplastic cell transformation found that eriodictyol inhibited phosphorylation of ATF1 but had no effect on the phosphorylation of RSK, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, p38 or JNKs, indicating that eriodictyol specifically suppresses RSK2 signaling. Furthermore, eriodictyol inhibited RSK2-mediated ATF1 transactivation and tumor promoter-induced transformation of JB6 Cl41 cells. Eriodictyol or knockdown of RSK2 or ATF1 also suppressed Ras-mediated focus formation, according to "Eriodictyol inhibits RSK2-ATF1 signaling and suppresses EGF-induced neoplastic cell transformation" by Liu K, Cho YY, Yao K, Nadas J, Kim DJ, Cho EJ, Lee MH, Pugliese A, Zhang J, Bode AM, Dong Z, Dong Z.(5)

6. Antiproteasomal agent

In the study of flavanone glycoside and flavone glycoside compounds and their Antiproteasomal effect found that kaempferol, a well known and widely distributed flavonoid in the plant kingdom, was the most active antiproteasomal agent, followed by apigenin, eriodictyol-7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside, 3,5-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and salidroside, respectively, according to "Phenolic Glycosides with antiproteasomal activity from Centaurea urvillei DC. subsp. urvillei" by Gülcemal D, Alankuş-Çalışkan O, Karaalp C, Ors AU, Ballar P, Bedir E.(6)

7. Melanogenesis
In the investigation of phytochemicals and their effect in Melanogenesis found that isolated, anastatin A, silybin A, isosilybins A and B, eriodictyol, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, hierochins A and B, (2R,3S)-2,3-dihydro-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-5-(2-formylvinyl)-7-hydroxybenzofuran, (+)-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, (+)-balanophonin, 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-{4-[(E)-3-hydroxy-1-propenyl]-2-methoxyphenoxy}-1,3-propanediol, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde substantially inhibited melanogenesis with IC(50) values of 6.1-32 microM, according to "Melanogenesis inhibitors from the desert plant Anastatica hierochuntica in B16 melanoma cells" by Nakashima S, Matsuda H, Oda Y, Nakamura S, Xu F, Yoshikawa M.(7)

8. Antimicrobial effect
In the research of flavonoids extracted from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel and its antimicrobial potency found that pairwise combinations of eriodictyol, naringenin and hesperetin showed both synergistic and indifferent interactions that were dependent on the test indicator organism, according to "Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids extracted from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a byproduct of the essential oil industry" by Mandalari G, Bennett RN, Bisignano G, Trombetta D, Saija A, Faulds CB, Gasson MJ, Narbad A.(8)

9. Antiplatelet activity
In the investigation of ethanol summary extract and four flavonoids from Leuzea carthamoide, including eriodictyol (1) and patuletin (2) influenced COL- and AA-induced aggregation. Their IC(50) values are presented. Flavonoid glycosides eriodictyol-7-beta-glucopyranoside (3) and 6-hydroxykaempferol-7-O-(6''-O-acetyl-beta-D[small cap]-glucopyranoside) (4) and their antiplatelet activity found that found to be weak antiplatelet agents. These results confirmed the fact that glucosylation decreases the antiplatelet activity. according to "In vitro antiplatelet activity of flavonoids from Leuzea carthamoides" by Koleckar V, Brojerova E, Rehakova Z, Kubikova K, Cervenka F, Kuca K, Jun D, Hronek M, Opletalova V, Opletal L.(9)

10. Protozoan infection
In the evaluation of Bioassay-guided fractionation of a Satureja parvifolia MeOH extract led to the isolation of eriodictyol, luteolin and ursolic and oleanolic acids found that Antiplasmodial activity of eriodictyol and luteolin is reported here for the first time. Besides, the four compounds showed activity against P. falciparum 3D7 strain and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, according to "Triterpenic acids and flavonoids from Satureja parvifolia. Evaluation of their antiprotozoal activity" by van Baren C, Anao I, Leo Di Lira P, Debenedetti S, Houghton P, Croft S, Martino V.(10)

11. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21691069
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17202655
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21544733
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21093852
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21098035
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20937505
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20189399
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18045389
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18161506
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16729575