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Saturday, 9 November 2013

Overcome Infertility - Causes of Infertility

A. Definition
Infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive after 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse. It effects over 5 millions couple alone in the U. S. and many times more in the world. Because of unawareness of treatments, only 10% seeks help from professional specialist.
B. Causes (Types) of Infertility
a) Immunity Causes of Infertility
I. Definition
Malfunction of immune system interferes with the reproductive processes including the inflammation to cells. These natural processes are vital for preparation of ovulation, implantation of a embryo ( malfunction of immune system may cause abnormal endometrial lining) and production of sperm quality and quantity (Malfunction of immune system may cause antibody attack his own sperm), etc.
II. How immune system causes infertility
1. Sperm agglutination
Sperm agglutination is a condition in which sperms clumping together due to infection or antibody reaction because of immune system attacking the sperm thereby, reducing the sperm ability to fertilize the egg and increasing the risk of infection.
2. Testicular injure
Testicle injure caused by what ever reason may increase the risk of immune system attacking the man's sperm due to inflammation and infection.
3. Testicular cancer
Testicular cancer is defined as abnormal cells growth caused by inability of immune system failure to regulate cells duplication, become cancerous in the testicle leading to poor sperm count and decreasing the risk of fertility. Researchers believe men with poor quality of sperm production is considered as high risk to develop testicle cancer than others who do not.
4. Antisperm antibody
Antibody is an chemical made by our body to help the immune system to identify foreign invasion such as bacteria and virus. In case of anti sperm antibody, the immune system attacks fetus and the sperm which interferes the sperm quality, movement and sperm cervical invasion resulting in increasing the risk of infertility for women and men alike.
5. Pyospermia
Pyospermia is condition in which high levels of white blood cell count exists in the sperm. It is caused by infection of sexual transmitted disease somewhere in the body. Sometimse such infection may cause the immune system recognizes the sperm as an invader and kill it.
6 Aniphospholipid antibody
It is defined as a condition in which a class of protein attacks an early development of pregnancy.
8. Antinuclear antibody
Antinuclear antibody is antibody directed against contents of the cell nucleus leading to miscarriage caused by immunity disorder.
c) Lifestyle Causes of Infertility
1. Unhealthy diet
a) Unsaturated fat and trans fat
Intake of high levels of saturated fat and trans fat not only cause high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream leading to heart disease and strokes but also decreases the liver in fat and protein metabolism and blood flow to the reproductive organs causing hormone imbalance resulting in disrupting the menstrual cycle in women and increasing the risk o ferectile dysfunction in men.
b) Caffeine
Moderate intake of caffeine does not causes either infertility or miscarry, but over dose of caffeine liking drinking a lot of coffee will increase the risk of infertility and miscarry because caffeine is stimulant causing over production of certain hormones which affect ovulation and hamper conception.
c) Alcohol
Moderate drinking helps to improve blood circulation to the reproductive organ leading to increase the chance of fertility of men and women alike. Excessive drinking in women may increase the production of hormone prolactin which interferes which the ovulation leading to infertility. In men, alcohol interferes with production of testosterone leading low quality of sperm and sexual desire causing male infertility.
2. Biking
Biking may cause the scrotum problem including low sperm count. It is advice for people who like to bike in off road mountain to take precaution to avoid swelling, pain or damaging the reproductive system leading to infertility.
3. Exercise
While rigid exercise reduces the chance of fertility because it interferes with the production of sperm and egg as well as decreasing the brain message to test and ovaries, moderate exercise improves it. It not only decreases the blood flow to the reproductive organs, but also signals the false message to the nervous system to divert all energy to organs other than reproductive system disrupting the flow of qi in the abdomen and stopping ovulation resulting in increasing the risk of infertility.
4. Hot bath and Sun bath
The male body temperature is important for sperm production, it only needs a temperature slight below the core body temperature to interfere with the function of the reproductive system . Hot tubs, saunas, steam room or working in the high heat environment may decrease quality and quantity of sperm resulting in increasing the risk of infertility.
d)Psychological Causes of Infertility
1. Slimness effect
The obsession with slimness at all cost may interferes the production of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone which not only causes delay or abnormal sperm and eggs development but also interferes with primitive process of natural selection in the brain leading to absence of period as blood redirected to other organs need causing nutrients deficiency.
2. Failure to conceive
Many couple after several tries to conceive but fail or just having a miscarriage, feel dramatic pressure and stress which cause hormone imbalance and interfere with the production of sperm in men and normal cycle in women resulting in increasing the risk of inability to conceive.
3. Stress
Stress interferes with hormone production ( increasing the secretion of adrenaline hormone that suppress the production of progesterone which is necessary for the soften of uterine lining for fertilized egg implantation) increasing the risk of absence of ovulation leading to infertility in women. In men, it causes low sperm count and reduce quality of sperm.
4. Depression
Depression increases the production of certain hormone in the nervous system and the glands leading to hormone imbalance and interferes the normal procedure of menstrual cycles in women and lowering sperm count in men, leading to infertility.
5. Medical problem
Some medication may have side effects leading to nervous tension and the risk of malfunction of some organs in the the body such as hypertension medication has an effect to kidney function, causing psychological problem such as stress and anxiety.
e) Cervical Causes of Infertility
I. Definition
Cervix is a lower neck of uterus, it joins on top with the uterus and the bottom with the vagina. It normally is hostile to the sperm with thick and sticky mucus and only produces sperm friendly mucus a few day before ovulation to invite sperm invasion for conception.
II. Cervical causes of infertility
1. Cervical damage
Damage to cervix caused by medical surgery such as several abortions may lead to abnormal function of cervix such as not open for sperm invasion or closed to allow pregnancy to proceed to term resulting in miscarry and infertility.
2. Cervical stenosis
Cervical stenosis is defined as a blockage or narrowing of the cervical canal, it is caused by birth defect or medical surgery thereby, limiting the chance of sperm uterine invasion causing infertility.
3. Cervicitis
Cervicitis is defined as a medical condition caused by inflammation or infection to the cervix leading to abnormal production of cervical mucus and the risk of infertility.
4. Cervical problems
Cervical problems are caused by abnormal formation of cervix at birth or after medical surgery leading to interferes with sperm invasion through the cervix and into the uterus as resulting of thicken mucus or mucus hostile to sperm.
a) Congenital problem
The abnormal formation of cervix is caused by medication taking by the mother during pregnancy resulting in effecting the mucus production thereby, increasing the risk of infertility and miscarry.
b) Medical problem
Damage to cervix is caused by medical surgery such as several abortions leading to abnormal function of cervix such as not open for sperm invasion or closed to allow pregnancy to proceed to term resulting in miscarry and infertility.
c) Hormone problem
It is caused by not enough estrogen to stimulate the production of cervical mucus which are friendly to sperm invasion.
f) Endometrial Lining Causes of Infertility
I. Definition
The endometrium is the inner membrane of the mammalian uterus. It helps to support the fertilized egg. Under influence of the high levels of estrogen at the early part of the menstrual cycle the endometrial lining become thick then become soft once ovulation occurs when progesterone is produced with high amount.
II. Endometrial lining Causes of infertility
1. Adenomyosis
Adenomyosis happens most likely in the late of woman life and who has had several pregnancy. It is classified as a medical condition of endometrial cell grows within the muscular walls of the uterus causing symptoms similar to those of endometriosis. It may interfere with the embryo implantation if the uterine tissue extends through entire region of the uterine wall resulting in infertility and miscarriage.
2. Endometrial hyperplasia
Endometrial hyperplasia is defined as overgrowth or thickening of the uterus lining as resulting of high levels of estrogen and insufficient levels by of progesterone leading miss ovulation and infertility.
3. Endometriosis
Endometriosis is defined as cells of endometrium grow somewhere else other than in the endometrium. Normally, endometriosis not travel far but around the uterus region. It interferes with the ovulation and embryo implantation leading to infertility and miscarriage.
4. Endometritis
Endometritis is defined as infection or inflammation of the uterine lining caused by pelvic infection or sexual transmitting diseases leading to miscarriage for pregnant women.
g) Environment Causes of Infertility
1. Workplace hazards
workplace containing high amount of hazardous chemicals may disrupt the processes of reproductive organs leading to eggs and sperm damaging, conception difficult, lower sexual desire and other reproductive diseases.
2. Pesticides
Pesticides is one of the environment toxins which causes damage or interferes with reproductive processes including hormone imbalance (high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone, interrupt ovulation, lower sperm count, sperm movement, etc.) leading to conception difficulty.
3. Environment factors
Expose yourself in certain chemical environment may interfere the body hormone production leading to reproductive abnormal function resulting in increasing the risk of birth defect, stillborn, infertility and miscarriage.
4. Xanoestrogen
Xanoestrogen is also known as environment estrogen acts as estrogen, it can remain in the body for a long time and block and interfere with body's natural normal functions leading to many disorders including low sperm count, abnormal sperm production and movement in men and abnormal overgrowth of vagina lining, premature breast growth in women and infertility in both.
5. Chemicals
Chemicals such as DDT, PCP, furans and men made estrogen reduce the sperm quality and lower the sperm count in men leading to infertility. In women, such chemicals may cause child defect and miscarry because of it's toxic effect.
h)-Birth Defects Causes of Infertility
I. Definition
A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body due to injure or gene defects. Some of them can be treated by medical attention, some can not.
II. Birth defect causes infertility
1. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
As a genetic passing through condition, congenital adrenal hyperplasia is present at birth and can affect both boy and girl alike. It is caused the lack an enzyme which is vital for the adrenal gland to make the hormones cortisol and aldosterone resulting in higher than normal testosterone hormone in the body. While girl is born with muscular appearance with high levels of testosterone hormone, it leads to abnormal menstrual period and causing infertility. The disease may be difficult to diagnosis in boy, but it may interfere with the growth and normal function of the reproductive organ including the test and **** leading to infertility.
2. Congenital abnormality
Abnormalities present at birth may interfere with the fertility and carry the pregnancy to term.
a) In men
Epididymis, crytorchidism, etc.
b) In women
Abnormal formation of cervix, cervical canal, septate uterus, etc
3. Crytorchidism
Crytorchilism also known as undesenced testicles, It uses to happen to premature child. If it is not repaired by age six, it may causespermanent infertility because of no sperm in the semen.
4. Cystic fibrosis
It is a genetic disease present at birth. Men with cystic fibroisis was born with absence of the vas deferens where it connect the testicle and epididymis to the ejaculating duct leading to infertility as resulting of impossible for sperm to pass through the ****.
5. Epipadas
Epipadas is a type of abnormal formation of the **** at birth in which the urethra ends in an opening on the upper aspect of the ****. Men with epipadas have normal sperm production, but the ejaculating sperm can not deposit to the cervix interfering with sexual erection and leading to infertility.
6. Chromosomes
Normally men carry X and Y chromosome and women carry X chromosome, study show infertility may be caused by genetic abnormality including abnormality part of Y chromosome and loss of large part of Y chromosome leading to lower sperm count and interfering with fertility.
7. Sepate uterus
Sepate uterus is a condition in which the uterus is divided by septum into separate half. Since the uterus is divided, each half has little space for the fetus.
i)-Syndrome Causes of Infertility
I. Definition
Syndrome is defined as the aggregate of symptoms and signs associated with series of operations, events, or steps which lead to disease due to unhealthy or unwholesome process.
II. Types of syndrome cause infertility
1. Anticardiolipin antibody syndrome
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a disorder of coagulation, which causes blood clots. Women with high levels of anticardiolipin antibodies has a high risk of miscarriage. There are several types of such antibodies but the Ig G type is the one that correlates the most with pregnancy loss. It is said that intakes of low dose of aspirin or blood thinner will help to avert the problem. Make sure you check your antibody every eight weeks to prevent early miscarry.
2. Rokitansky syndrome
An inherit of birth defect with a malformation of vagina and absence of uterus.
3. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
PCOS is a condition associated with the irregular ovulation leading to excessive building up the uterine lining and increasing the risk of infertility. Women with PCOS are found to have high levels of testosterone and high circulation of levels of insulin.
4. Klinefelter's syndrome
Genetic defect of male with one chromosome Y and 2 chromosome X leading to hormone imbalance including lack of testosterone. male breast, small testes and interfere with normal sperm production (semen found to have no sperm) causing infertility.
5. Kallmann's syndrome
A malfunction of hypothalamus gland at birth that interferes with production of gonadotropin-releasing hormone causing delay of puberty.
a) In men, it causes low levels of testosterone resulting of small size ****, cryptorchism leading to infertility because of no sperm during ejaculation.
b) In women, it causes no menstrual period and no egg production.
6. Cushing's syndrome
Cushing's syndrome is a chronic illness caused by over production of cortisol hormone leading to lower sperm production in male and abnormal ovulation in women.
7. Asherman's syndrome
Asherman's syndrome is a condition characterized by the presence of scars within the uterine cavity. It is caused by scars after a D&C is performed on a recently pregnant uterus including a missed or incomplete miscarriage, birth, or elective termination in removing retained products of conception and placental remains causing endometrium inability to response to the estrogen during menstrual cycle leading to infertility.
j) Hormone Imbalance Causes of Infertility
1. Androgens
Androgen is also an steroid hormone which helps to control the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics. In women, it is necessary in estrogen synthesis, increasing sexual desire and preventing of bone loss, over production of androgen causes male like pattern, irregular menstrual cycle or absence of menstrual cycle leading to infertility. In Men, over production androgen by test causes lower quality of sperm and sperm production leading to male infertility.
2. Hyperthyroidism
It is defined as a condition in which our body produces too much thyroid hormone causing low levels of estrogen which can not trigger the production of LH then ovulation leading to infertility.
3. Hypothyroidism
As oppose to hyperthyroidism, it is defined as a condition in which our body produces very little thyroid hormone leading to irregular ovulation and increasing production of prolactin causing production of immature eggs from the ovaries resulting in infertility.
4. Luteal phase defect
Luteal phrase is defined as the second half of the menstrual cycle that occurs between ovulation and menstruation. At the beginning of this phrase, after releasing of the egg, the levels of progesterone increase leading to uterine inning thickening to support the implantation of embryo. Luteal phrase defect is caused by uterine inning does not develop properly, thereby does not response to high levels of progesterone stimulation preventing embryo implantation resulting in miscarriage.
5. Low levels of Progesterone
Progesterone is vital for endometrial lining to become soft in helping implantation of fertilized egg, stimulate the production of sperm friendly mucus and open the cervical for sperm invasion. Deficiency of progesterone interferes with those processes leading to infertility as sperm can not enter the Fallopian tube.
6. High levels of Estrogen
Estrogen is vital for starting the women menstrual, but the levels remain high over the cycle will prevent ovulation.
7. Testosterone
Testosterone not only is vital for maintaining **** erection, sexual desire but also helps in healthy sperm production. Unbalance of levels of testosterone in men interferes with those processes leading to erectile dysfunction and abnormal sperm production.
k)Testicle Causes of Infertility
I. Definition
Testicle which is a sex and endocrine gland that produces sperm and male sex hormones, including the steroid testosterone.
II. Testicle causes of infertility
1. Testicular torsion
testicle torsion is defined as damaging the spermatic cord that interferes with blood vessel which transport blood to the testicles.
2. Testicle feminization
It is caused by enzymatic defect. Men with testicle feminization look like a women have both X any Y chromosomes but fail to response to the male hormone testosterone.
3. Primary testicular failure
The genetic defect that causes malformation of testicles leading to abnormal sperm production resulting in testosterone deficiency and inability to egg fertilizing.
4. Secondary testicular failure
testicle damage caused by exposure to environment toxins, drugs and medication side effects orvaricocele leading to abnormal production of sperm and increasing the risk of infertility.
5.Orchitis
Orchitis is a disease caused by bacteria and virus which infects the men one or both testicles. It may lead to infertility if not treat early.
6. Epipadas
Epipadas is a type of abnormal formation of the **** at birth in which the urethra ends in an opening on the upper aspect of the ****. Men with epipadas have normal sperm production, but the ejaculating is retrograde that interferes with sexual erection and leading to infertility.
7. Epididymitis
Epididymitis is defined as inflammation of epididumis caused by bacteria, sexual transmitting diseases and urinary tract infection leading to infertility if infection spread to testicles.
8. Epididymal obstruction
Epididymis is a tiny tube which attaches to the testicle. Epididymals obstruction is defined as the blockage of the passage of sperm to **** leading to low sperm count and increases the risk of infertility.
l)Uterine Causes of Infertility
I. Definition
The uterus is female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ. It is where the fertilized egg implanted and develop to a fetus then to a baby. One end, it is connected to the cervix, the other is connected on both sides to the Fallopian tubes.
II. Uterine causes of infertility
1. Bicornate uterus
Bicornate uterus also known as heart-shaped uterus caused by abnormal formation of mullerrian duct, thereby increasing the risk of premature born baby or miscarry due to small than normal uterus.
2. Fibroid
Fibroid is benign tumour which grows in, on or outside of the wall of the uterus. If it grows big enough, it may interfere with the implantation of embryo in the uterus leading to premature delivery, miscarriage and increasing the risk of infertility if they grow near the opening of both Fallopian tubes and distort the shape of uterine captivity.
3. Sepate uterus
Sepate uterus is a condition in which the uterus is divided by septum into separate half. Since the uterus is divided, each half has little space for the fetus to grow. It may not interferes with implantation of fertilized eggs but the pregnancy may end with premature birth of miscarriage.
4. Unicornuate uterus
Unicornuate uterus is a malforming uterus which is formed from one only of the paired mullerian ducts while the other mullerian duct does not develop. Women with unicornuate uterus may never be diagnosis and may be possible to get pregnant but the reproductive failure is high.
5. Uterine factors
Uterine problem such as endometriosis may increase the risk of infertility because it interferes with the implantation of fertilized egg into the uterus.
m)Vagina Causes of Infertility
I. Definition
Vagina is defined as the lower part of the female reproductive tract, a moist canal in female fibromuscular tubular tract extending from the uterus to the exterior of the body .
II. Vagina causes of infertility
1. Vaginitis
It is caused by infection, low levels of estrogen or allergy leading to abnormal vagina discharge. In case of frequent vaginitis, it is caused by adhesion in the pelvic region or tubal blockage leading to infertility and reducing the sperm invasion.
2. Vaginosis
It is caused by over production of certain bacteria in the vagina area as resulting of infection causing unbalance of bacteria in the region.
3. Vaginal adenosis
Vaginal adenosis is a genetic defect caused by the mother taking medication diethylstinesterol during pregnancy leading to abnormal vagina and increasing the risk of cervical cancer.
4. Rokitansky syndrome
An genetic passing through birth defect with a malformation of vagina and absence of uterus.
5. Lubricant
Lubricant used during sexual intercourse to prevent vagina irritation and pain may cause toxic effect to sperm. Using water soluble lubricant can prevent that to happen if fertility is a concern.
6. Douching
Douching may be used to prevent infection caused by bacteria in or around the women vagina, but it also toxic to the sperm and affect the cervical mucus, therefore women who try to get pregnant should avoid douching all together.
n) Sexually Transmitted Diseases Causes of Infertility
I. Definition
Sexually transmitted disease (STD), also known as sexually transmitted infection (STI), is an illness caused by the transmission between humans through sexual contact including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex.
II. Sexually transmitted diseases causes of infertility.
1. Chlamydia
Chlamydia is also known as Chlamydia pneumoniae. It is a type of organism that is an STD that leads to infertility. In men, it causes infection leading to urethritis and interferes with ejaculation. In women, it may damage the Follopian tube.
2. Epididymitis
Epididymitis is defined as the inflammation of the epididumis caused by bacteria. It is a urinary tract infection that leads to infertility if infection spreads to the testicles.
3. Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea is an STD caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonococcus that leads to epididymitis infection and inflammation of the uterus in men, and the Fallopian tube in women. It results in tubal damage causing infertility and miscarriage.
4. Pyospermia
Pyospermia is a condition in which high levels of white blood cells exist in the sperm. It is caused by the infection of a STD somewhere in the body. Sometimes such infection may cause the immune system recognizing the sperm as an invader and killing it.
5. Ureaplasma urealyticum
Ureaplasia urealyticum is a bacterium belonging to the family Mycoplasmataceae. It is a type of infectious bacteria with no symptoms. It is sexually transmitted between partners and interferes with the reproductive processes including tubal disease, decreases sperm movement and the quality causing infertility.
o)Ovarian Causes of Infertility
I. Definition
The ovary is female reproductive organ where the eggs mature and extruded to the Fallopian tubes, it is part of the vertebrate female reproductive system.
II. Ovarian causes of infertility
1. Ovarian resistance
The term used to define the inability of ovaries to response to FSH stimulation, thereby no developing follicle. The exact cause is still unknown, some researchers believe it is caused deficiency of FSH and LH receptors in the ovary, the presence of antibodies to gonadotropin receptors, or a post receptor defect.
2. Ovarian failure
Ovarian failure is a condition defined as loss of ovarian function for female under age of 40 ( early menopause) caused by low levels of estrogen and high levels of FSH hormone.
3. Ovarian dygenesis
It is caused by the second X chromosome defective at birth leading to sterility.
4. Chocolate cyst
Chocolate cyst also known as endometrioma, caused by endometrial adhesion and implants attached to the ovaries leading to abnormal function of ovaries and interfering with production of mature eggs.
5. Ovarian pregnancy
An pregnancy occurs within the ovary. It is caused by matured age being fertilized inside of the ovaries leading to miscarriage.
6. Poor egg quality
The cause of poor egg quality still unknown but researches believe it may be caused by genetic passing through from generation to generation, poor lifestyle, drugs or medication side effects leading to abnormal eggs producing processes of ovaries resulting in increasing the risk of miscarriage and birth defect.
q)Irregular Cells Growth Causes of Infertility
1. Chocolate cyst
chocolate cyst also known as endometrioma, caused by endometrial adhesion and implants attached to the ovaries leading to abnormal function of ovaries and interfering with production of mature eggs.
2. Adenomyosis
Adenomyosis happens most likely in the late of woman life and who has had several pregnancy. It is classified as a medical condition of endometrial cell grows within the muscular walls of the uterus causing symptoms similar to those of endometriosis. It may interferes with the embryo implantation if the uterine tissue extends through entire region of the uterine wall resulting in miscarriage.
3. Cervical polyp
A cervical polyp is a benign polyp or tumour on the surface of the cervical canal, it is caused ny infection, inflammation or abnormal response to high levels of estrogen leading to abnormal bleeding, if not treated, it will gradually grow up and obstruct the cervical opening leading to fertility and miscarry.
4. Endometriosis
Endometriosis is defined as cells of endometrium grow somewhere else other than in the endometrium. Normally, endoemtriosis not travel far but around the uterus region. It interferes with the ovulation and embryo implantation leading to infertility and miscarriage.
5. Fibroids
Fibroids are benign tumours that grow in, on or outside of the wall of the uterus. If it grows big enough, it may interfere with the implantation of embryo in the uterus leading to premature delivery and miscarriage and increasing the risk of infertility if they grow near the opening of both Fallopian tubes and distort the shape of uterine cavity.
6. Hyperplasia without atypical cells
Hyperplasia without atypical cells is a condition of abnormal cell growth in the endometrium. It is caused by prolong high levels of environment estrogen leading to infertility. It is said that women who are over weight by 20-50 pounds and women who are on unopposed estrogen hormone therapy are high risk in developing hyperplasia without atypical cells.
7. Peyronie's disease
Peyronie's disease is also known as induratio **** plastica, it is a condition that nodules or lumps develop in the **** causing cause a restriction and prevent the **** from expanding in that area leading to inability in achieving or maintaining an erection.
8. Polycystic ovaries
A condition of many medium-sized follicles exist around the rim of the ovaries, it can be symptoms of PCOS.
r)Medication Causes of Infertility
1. Blood pressure medication
Medication used to treat high blood pressure may interferes with kidney function in controlling sexual desire and sexual function in sperm ejaculation leading to infertility. Changing the medicine or dose will decrease the risk of kidney damage and reverse the effects.
2. Dietthylstilbestrol (DES)
Dietthylstilbestrol is one the medicine used in the 50 -60 to prevent miscarriage. women intake of above medicine increases the risk of deformities to the child reproductive organs including abnormal cervix, uterus and blockage of the des deferens, etc.
3. Other medication
Medications
Some medication used can be effected the reproductive organs
a) In women
Medication disrupts the women reproductive cycle including antibiotics ( interfering with production of cervical mucus), tranquilizers ( increasing the levels of prolactin), corisone ( causing irregular menstrual cycle), etc.
b) In men
Medication also cause lower sperm count, abnormal function of sperm cell production and interferes the normal production of FSH and LH (methotrexate, salazopyrine, etc.) Other such as corticosteroids, tranquilizers, narcotics, etc. cause impotency and ejaculation problem.
4. Morphine
Like other drugs, morphine interferes with the gonad-releasing hormone secretion, thus reducing the levels of testosterone in men leading to low sperm count, sperm movement and sperm production.
5. Antidepressant
Antidepressant may helpful to calm the nervous system, long term intake may impair the reproductive organs in fertility function by causing damage to the DNA in their sperm, leading to abnormal sperm production including low sperm count and round head sperm.
s)Medical Conditions Causes of Infertility
1. Diabetes
Diabetes is defined as inability to produce insulin by pancreas or inability of cells to use insulin efficiently. It may clot blood vessel as resulting of high levels of glucose in the bloodstream leading to impotence and retrograde ejaculation in men. In women with insulin resistant, high levels of insulin in the bloodstream interferes with normal function of menstrual cycle as resulting hormone imbalance leading to infertility.
2. Nervous disorder
Nervous disorder increases the production of certain hormone in the nervous system and the glands leading to hormone imbalance and interfering with the normal procedure of menstrual cycles in women and lowering sperm count in men, leading to infertility.
t) Spermic Causes of Infertility
1. Teraospermia
Teratospermia or teratozoospermia is a condition in which the sperm is mature abnormally such as th round headed spermatozoa affecting fertility in males by reducing sperm mobility and preventing sperm from penetrating into the egg.
2. Sperm agglutination
Sperm agglutination is a condition in which sperm clumping together due to infection or antibody reactions, thereby reducing the sperm's ability to fertilize egg and increasing the risk of infection.
3. Immature sperm
Sperm is manufactured in the testicles which are located in the scrotum. Immature sperm cells start to develop and grow in the seminiferous tubules then pass into the epididymis, where the sperm are stored and continue to grow and gain the ability to swim.
4. Necrozoospermia
Necrozoospermia is defined as the condition of totally absent sperm movement. The cause of necrozoospermia is still unknown. Some suggest it may be caused by a birth defect or obstructive pathology including hydrocoele, and varicocoele.
5. Oligospermia
Oligospermia is defined as a condition of having a low number of sperm during ejaculation of the male. It is caused by abnormal enlargement of the vein, sperm duct infection, or abnormal functioning of the pituitary gland in hormone secretion for production of sperm.
6. Klinefelter's syndrome
This is a genetic defect of the male with one Y chromosome and 2 X chromosomes leading to hormone imbalance, including lack of testosterone. Male breast, small testes and the interference with normal sperm production (semen found to have no sperm) causing infertility.
7. Germ cell phasia
As we known, the men's testicle contains germ cells for sperm production. Germ cell phasia is a genetic disease in men in which testicles have no germ cells thus are unable to produce sperm.
8. Epididymal obstruction
Epididymis is a tiny tube which attaches to the testicle. Epididymals obstruction is defined as the blockage of the passage of sperm to the **** leading to low sperm count and increases the risk of infertility.
u) Unexplained Causes of Infertility
I. Definition
The unexplained causes of infertility is defined as if the woman and men reproductive system are function normally but the present-day medical technology and medical doctors can not give a reason why the couple can not conceive
II. Unexplained Causes of Infertility
1. Abnormal eggs
The egg produced by the ovaries may be good quality, but for what ever reason the modern technology fails to detect the deformed structure or chromosomal abnormalities in the egg leading to inability for the egg to be fertilized by the sperm.
2. Luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome
There are possible that the matured egg produced by the ovaries without being released and trapped inside the unbroken corpus luteum.
3. Immune system disorder
It may be caused by abnormal immune function by which the immune system recognizes the sperm from the male partner as a foreign invasion and kill them or caused by immune system coating the mature egg, thereby preventing the sperm to penetrate it.
4. Infection and inflammation
Sexual transmitted diseases such as chlamydia may be presented in the women or the men body, but the modern technology can not detect it.
5. Sperm malfunction
In this case the egg is normal, but for what ever reason, the sperm can not penetrate it.
6. Medical condition
Some mild medical condition in the women reproductive organ such as mild case of endometriosis may interfere the implantation of egg in the uterine lining, but hard for medical technology to detect it.
Since there are hundreds ( may be thousand) of molecular and biochemical events that have to happen orderly and perfectly in order for the couple to conceive, unexplained causes of infertility may be one of the reason which drive many couples to seek help from alternative medicine.
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