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Monday, 25 November 2013

Osteoporosiss- The Diagnosis and Complications

Osteoporosis is defined as a condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of  the loss of bone density over a long period of time.
III. Diagnosis
According to the Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. Scientific Advisory Board, Osteoporosis Society of Canada, Screening and diagnostic methods: risk-factor assessment, clinical evaluation, measurement of bone mineral density, laboratory investigations.

If you are experience certain symptom of osteoporosis, the tests which your doctor order include
1. Blood and urinary tests
The aim of the tests are to check for the bone metabolism and the progression of bone (loss) diseases.

2. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is one most common test to measure the total bone density of including spine, hip, wrist etc. with accurate result.
3. Quantitative Ultrasound and computed tomography (QCT)
The evaluation of bone density at the lumbar spine and hip.using a standard X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) scanner. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS), a technology
for measuring properties of bone at peripheral skeletal sites, is more portable and less expensive than DXA, without the use of ionizing radiation(23).
Dr. Riggs BL and the research team in the study of Better tools for assessing osteoporosis indicated that a whole new field of research into the determinants of bone loss and fractures in the axial skeleton and set the stage for subsequent development of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), which are now the standard methods for assessing osteoporosis severity and treatment efficacy(24), but other study found that in cross-sectional study of males with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), High-resolution quantitative computed tomography (HRQCT)-based measurements and finite element analysis (FEA) variables were superior to DXA in discriminating between patients of differing prevalent vertebral fracture status(25).
4. Etc.

IV. Complication associated with Osteoporosis 
Pain, Fractures, Vertebral, Wrist, Rib fractures are associated with Osteoporosis, according to the study of New advances in imaging osteoporosis and its complications, said “We, as clinicians, should aim to increase awareness of this fracture type both as a frequent and varied source of pain in patients with osteoporosis and as the ultimate marker of severely impaired bone strength.”(26)

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 Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7864688 
(23) http://www.iscd.org/visitors/pdfs/10-QuantitativeUltrasoundintheMgmtofOsteo.pdf
(24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23154276 
(25) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23149277
(26) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22618377