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Monday, 25 November 2013

Osteoarthritis (OA) - Diseases associated with osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of
as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone.
Diseases associated with osteoarthritis
Researchers suggested that OA is not simply a disease related to aging or mechanical stress of joints but rather a “metabolic disorder” in which various interrelated lipid, metabolic, and humoral mediators contribute to the initiation and progression of the disease process. Indeed, OA has been linked not only to obesity but also to other cardiovascular risk factors, namely, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance(19a).
Most people who suffer from osteoarthritis also suffer from one or more below comorbidities(19b)
1.  Hypertension
In the study of The economic burden associated with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and hypertension: a comparative study, Dr.Maetzel A, and scientists at the University Health Network Research Institute indicated thatThe economic burden incurred by RA significantly exceeds that related to OA and HBP, while differences between patients with a diagnosis of OA without HBP or a diagnosis of HBP alone were non-significant, largely owing to the influence of comorbidities(19).
2. Cardiovascular disease
Researchers at the Erasmus University Medical Centre, in the study of Association of atherosclerosis with presence and progression of osteoarthritis: the Rotterdam Study, suggested that there is an associations of atherosclerosis with osteoarthritis of the knee and hand joints in women. The evidence was most solid for a relation with distal interphalangeal (DIP) osteoarthritis(20).
3. Peripheral vascular disease, 
The average vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was 1.09 mm in patients with generalized OA, and 0.96 mm in the matched normal reference population(21).
4. Congestive heart failure
History of CHF was highly associated with risk for CHF hospitalization. Hypertension, diabetes, and older age also increased risk modestly. There appeared to be a dose-related increase in CHF with etoricoxib compared with diclofenac, which reached statistical significance when the etoricoxib 90 mg groups (osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis) were pooled(22).
5. Renal function impairment 
In the study to investigate the urinary excretion of the collagen crosslinking compounds pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline in patients with morphologically different subgroups of OA and RA, found that there was no significant difference in pyridinoline or deoxypyridinoline excretion when patients with four grades of severity of OA were compared, although the median excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline for the OA group as a whole was raised above values found in a healthy control population(23).
6. Diabetes 
Several epidemiological and experimental data support the hypothesis that diabetes could be an independent risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), at least in some patients, leading to the concept of a diabetes-induced OA phenotype. If confirmed, this new paradigm will have a dramatic impact on prevention of OA initiation and progression(24)
7. Respiratory disease
People with Respiratory disease is also at a higher risk to develop osteoarthritis (OA). There are report that a 62-year-old woman was admitted because of chronic cough and bilateral infiltrates on chest roentgenogram. Additional history revealed that the patient had been taken diclofenac emulgel during the previous 10 years for arthrosis(25).
8. Etc.

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Sources
(19a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20367223
(19b) http://rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org/content/43/suppl_1/i4.full.pdf 
(20) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22563029
(21) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19575196
(22) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19380329
(23) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8162449
(24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21474484
(25) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14671818