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Monday, 25 November 2013

Osteoarthritis - The Diet

Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of
as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone.
The Diet
The aims of the diet is to provide protection to avoid elevation of the swelling and promoting degeneration as it becomes a cycle process or aging causes of osteoarthritis
1. Green tea
In the review of Green tea’s active ingredient, epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), dr. Ahmed S. at the College of Pharmacy summarized that the limitations of the dose, pharmacokinetics, and bioavailability of EGCG in experimental animals and findings related to the EGCG-drug interaction. Although these findings provide scientific evidence of the anti-rheumatic activity of EGCG, further preclinical studies are warranted before phase clinical trials could be initiated with confidence for patients with joint diseases(33).
2. Salmon is the common name for Salmonidae. They are anadromous, born in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then travel thousands of miles in the deep sea cold water throughout their life cycle and within to five years returning to the exacted location where they were born to reproduce and die.
a. Weight loss
In the investigation of supplementation with n3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-LCPUFA) and its effect in body weight, found that At the end of the 1-month period, 16 children lost weight and 27 children gained weight. Multiple analysis demonstrated that supplementation with n3-LCPUFA decreased HOMA-IR by 15% after adjusting for puberty, treatment adherence, changes in adipokines, and weight loss. Interaction between supplementation and weight loss was significant (p = 0.007), according to “Supplementation of n3 Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Synergistically Decreases Insulin Resistance with Weight Loss of Obese Prepubertal and Pubertal Children” byLópez-Alarcón M, Martínez-Coronado A, Velarde-Castro O, Rendón-Macías E, Fernández J.(34)
b. Antioxidants
In the research of the antioxidant effect of vitamin E after ingestion of salmon found that that megadoses of vitamin E, far from having pro-oxidative activity, actually increase the anti-oxidative capacity of the liver, especially after ingestion of salmon oil, according to “Effects of megadoses of dietary vitamin E on the antioxidant status of rats fed lard or salmon oil” by Flader D, Brandsch C, Hirche F, Eder K.(35)
c. Omega 3 fatty acids
Omega 3 fatty acids is necessary to maintain the ratio of good and bad cholesterol, thus reducing the risk of cholesterol inflammation according to the study of “In vitro fatty acid enrichment of macrophages alters inflammatory response and net cholesterol accumulation” by Wang S, Wu D, Lamon-Fava S, Matthan NR, Honda KL, Lichtenstein AH., posted in PubMed (36) and forming of free radical in the heart cells, leading to heart diseases.
d.  Anti inflammationIt is said the Omega 3 fatty acids beside reduced the risk of inflammatory effects on our joints and improved blood flow, by regulating the migration of inflammatory cells that cause inflammation, but also autoimmune diseases as a result of the elevation of IL-1 and the proinflammatory leukotriene LTB(4) produced by omega-6 fatty acids, according to the study of “Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases” by Simopoulos AP.,(37)
3. Walnut tree is one of the Genus plant belong to the family Juglandaceae about 30–130 ft). It is cultivated for its nut and kernel and for commercial purpose all over the world.
a. Antioxidant effects
In the compaeison of Compared with other common plant foods, walnuts (Juglans regia) and theirs antioxidant effects found that walnut consumption did not significantly change the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy, well-nourished older adults in this pilot study. However, improvements in linoleic acid and pyridoxal phosphate were observed with chronic consumption, while total plasma thiols were enhanced acutely. Future studies investigating the antioxidant effects of walnuts in humans are warranted, but should include either a larger sample size or a controlled feeding intervention, according to “Chronic and acute effects of walnuts on antioxidant capacity and nutritional status in humans: a randomized, cross-over pilot study” by McKay DL, Chen CY, Yeum KJ, Matthan NR, Lichtenstein AH, Blumberg JB.(38)
b.  Inflammation defense
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an enzyme located in mitochondria, is the key enzyme that protects the energy-generating mitochondria from oxidative damage caused by free radicals, according to the study of `The role of manganese superoxide dismutase in inflammation defense`by Li C, Zhou HM.(39)
c. Diabetes risk
deficiency (too little) and efficiency (too much) of some essential trace metals may play a role in the development of diabetes mellitus, including manganese, according to the study of `Copper, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, and zinc levels in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients`by Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Kazi N, Jamali MK, Arain MB, Jalbani N, Kandhro GA.(40)
4. Dulse is a red seaweed of genus Palmaria, belong to Family Palmariaceae that grows attached to rocks by a “holdfast” in the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific. It is commonly used in Ireland and Atlantic Canada both as food and medicinally and is now shipped around the globe. Dulse is found in many health food stores or fish markets or can be ordered directly from local distributors.
a. Health benefits
In the assessment of nutritional and physiological properties of edible seaweeds is presented. Seaweeds are traditionally consumed in Asia as sea vegetables found that Seaweeds showed important functional activities, such as antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticoagulant effect, antitumor activity, and an important role in the modification of lipid metabolism in human body. In conclusion, seaweeds have a high nutritional value, therefore an increase in their consumption, would elevate the foods offer to population, according to “[Nutritional evaluation and physiological effects of edible seaweeds].[Article in Spanish]” byJiménez-Escrig A, Goñi Cambrodón I.(41)
b. Antioxidant
In assessment of polyphenol content of the dulse extract of two grades of dulse harvested from Canadian Maritime locations differing in UV radiation exposure (i.e. west versus east coasts of Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick) and their antiodant effects found that The 1-butanol soluble extract from Grade 1 dulse (reduced UV-exposure) exhibited lower reducing activity versus Grade 2 dulse (greater UV exposure) reflecting a lower requirement for endogenous antioxidant protection. Grade 1 and 2 dulse extracts both inhibited (p0.03) AAPH-induced lipid peroxidation, but had no effect on AMVN-induced lipid peroxidation, demonstrating the aqueous nature of the antioxidants involved, according to “Extracts from dulse (Palmaria palmata) are effective antioxidants and inhibitors of cell proliferation in vitro” by Yuan YV, Carrington MF, Walsh NA.(42)
c. Weigh loss
As a rich source of fiber, dulse beside enhances the process of digestion, it also helps to make the stomach feeling fullness, thus reducing the risk of insulin cause of food craving, leading to weight loss, According to the study of Free-living, overweight and obese adults (N=204, body mass index 25 to 45) with baseline LDL cholesterol levels 130 to 200 mg/dL (3.4 to 5.2 mmol/L) were randomized; 144 were included in the main analysis of participants who completed the trial without significant protocol violations, conducted by Provident Clinical Research, Glen Ellyn,(43)
5. Lime (Lemon)
Lime is a species of Citrus Aurantifolia, belongs to the family Rutaceae. It has around shape are with green to yellow in color and 3–6 cm in diameter and native to Southeast Asia.
a. Antioxidant
In the analyzing the dichloromethane, ethanol and water extracts prepared from celery [Apium graveolens L. (Umbelliferae)], Jerusalem artichoke [Helianthus tuberosus L. (Compositae)], spinach [Spinacia oleracea L. (Chenopodiaceae)], chard [Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla (Chenopodiaceae)], purslane [Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae)], ispit, or borage [Trachystemon orientale (L.) G. Don (Boraginaceae)], garden rocket [Eruca sativa Mill. (Brassicaceae)], red cabbage [Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra DC. (Cruciferae)], lime flower [Tilia tomentosa Moench (Tiliaceae)], cinnamon [Cinnamomum cassia Presl. (Lauraceae)], and rosehip [Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae)], found that the dichloromethane, ethanol and water extracts of cinnamon showed the best antioxidant effect among the extracts of the tested plants. The ethanol extract of cinnamon exhibited 63.02% inhibition against acetylcholinesterase and 85.11% inhibition against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at 200 µg/mL(44)
b. Vitamin C
Besides is essential in preventing the breaking off small vein cause of hardening of the vessel wall, vitamin C also improves the digestive system in maximum absorption of vital nutrients. Overdoses can cause diarrhea, It also plays an important role in enhancing immune system fighting against the forming of free radicals that cause muscle damage, according to the study of “Does antioxidant vitamin supplementation protect against muscle damage?” by McGinley C, Shafat A, Donnelly AE.(45)
c. Immune system
Since it contains high amount of flavonoid, it helps to improve the immune system fighting against forming of free radical causes of tumor and cancer, according to the study of “Dietary intake of selected flavonols, flavones, and flavonoid-rich foods and risk of cancer in middle-aged and older women” by Wang L, Lee IM, Zhang SM, Blumberg JB, Buring JE, Sesso HD.(46)
6. Etc.


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Sources
(33) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20447316
(34) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22136960
(35) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12951900
(36) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19660150
(37) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21346389
(38) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20462428
(39) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21977313
(40) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18193174
(41) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10488389
(42) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15833383
(43)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20102847
(44) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21284538
(45) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19902983
(46) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19158208