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Saturday, 30 November 2013

Neuralgia - Antioxidant against neuralgia

Neuralgia is defined as a condition of a sudden and heavy attacks of pain that follows the path of a nerve or nerves as a result of a change in neurological structure or function due to irritation or damage to the nerves without stimulating pain receptor (nociceptor) cells. the disease affects about 2%–3% of the population.
Antioxidant against neuralgia(42)
1. Copper
Copper, an essential trace element is essential for the absorption and utilization of iron and distributed widely in the body and occurs in liver, muscle and bone. Deficiency of copper can often cause the anemia-like symptoms. However, ingesting too much of it can lead to generator of free radicals that can damage DNA
1.1. Antimicrobial and viral 
 Copper enhances the immune function in fighting against foreign invasion, such as bacteria and virus, thus reducing the risk of infection and inflammation by utilizing the absorption of oxygen and production of energy within cells. 
1.2. Antioxidant enzyme Superoxide dismutase (SOD)
Copper is vital for the making of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase, an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen by protecting the cell membranes from free radicals. In fact, it outcompetes damaging reactions of superoxide, thus protecting the cell from superoxide toxicity. Research found in experiment, Mice lacking SOD1(Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]) develop a wide range of pathologies, including hepatocellular carcinoma, an acceleration of age-related muscle mass loss,an earlier incidence of cataracts and a reduced lifespan. Mice lacking SOD3(Extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] ) do not show any obvious defects and exhibit a normal lifespan, though they are more sensitive to hyperoxic injury and mice lacking SOD2 (Superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial) die before birth. The above result enhances the importance of the presence of copper in improving life span and living health in human as well.

2. glutathione (GSH)
Glutathione (GSH), a polypeptide of glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid that occurs widely in plant and animal tissues beside is best known for its role in enhancing the immune system in protect our body from bacteria and virus, it also is an antioxidant that helps to prevent damage caused by oxidation of cellular components such as free radicals and peroxides by converting to its oxidized form glutathione disulfide (GSSG), leading to generation of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidases and peroxiredoxins of which reduces the risk of oxidative DNA damage and subsequently the individual’s risk of cancer susceptibility.Deficiency of Glutathione (GSH) causes hemolytic anemia, progressive degeneration of the spinal cord, disorders of the peripheral nervous system, diseases of the skeletal muscles, etc. Intake with vitamin D increases glutathione levels in the brain and appears to be a catalyst for glutathione production.

3. Alpha lipoic acid
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is an organosulfur compound derived from octanoic acid. It has been used as over-the-counter nutritional supplements to treat a number of diseases and conditions. Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) not only is importance in preventing the symptoms of vitamin C and vitamin E deficiency, but also generates dihydrolipoic acid by reduction of antioxidant radicals. Recent study showed that Alpha lipoic acid may have a therapeutic and anti-aging effects due to modulation of signal transduction and gene transcription, which improve the antioxidant status of the cell.

4. Manganese
Manganese is an essential trace nutrient in all forms of life. It is well known for its role in helping the body to maintain healthy skin and bone structure, but also acts as cofactors for a number of enzymes in higher organisms, where they are essential in detoxification of superoxide (O2−, with one unpaired electron) free radicals. Although superoxide is biologically quite toxic and is deployed by the immune system to kill invading microorganisms by utilizing the enzyme NADPH oxidase. Any Mutations in the gene coding for the NADPH oxidase cause an immunodeficiency syndrome. Superoxide may contribute to aging via the oxidative damage that it inflicts on cells. In larger amounts, manganese can be poisoning to neurological damage which is sometimes irreversible.

5. Selenium
Selenium , a trace mineral plays an important and indirect role as an antioxidant by fulfilling its function as a necessary constituent of glutathione peroxidase and in production of glutathione, that inhibits the damage caused by oxidation of free radical hydrogen peroxide, leading to aging effects.
5.1. Heart health
Since it works synergism with vitamin E, it promotes heart health. Study showed by increasing the levels of glutathion, selenium decreases the risk of LDL oxidation, thus lowering the risk of plaque building up on the arterial walls, blood pressure and heart diseases.
5.2. Immune system
Selenium enhances the immune function that fighting off the attack of AID virus by promoting the function of interleukin 2 and T-cells.
5.3. Cancer
Study showed that levels pf selenium in blood test is associated with high rate of cancer, including skin cancer.

6. Zinc
Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods. The ability of zinc ininhibiting oxidative processes has been recognized for many years. Chronic effects, zinc enhances the introduction of metallothioneins, which help to capture the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals due to cysteine residues, resulting in lessening the risk of oxidative stress.
Over acute effects, zinc may reduce the postischemic injury to a variety of tissues and organs by involving the antagonism of copper reactivity as a result from its antioxidant functions.

7. Etc.  


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(42) http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.ca/2012/01/antioxidants-and-others-antioxidants.html