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Sunday, 17 November 2013

Menstrual Disorders - Irregular Menstruation - The Causes, Risk Factors and Diagnosis

Irregular menstruation or period is defined as condition in which a woman is experience abnormal variation of length of the menstrual cycle. While the normal menstrual cycle is 28-35 days, women who are experience with irregular menstrual cycle can have a length variation between 8 and 20 days or shorter than 21 days, or longer than 36 days.
Causes and risk factors
1. Age
As a woman approaches the age of 30, hormone production begins to change to the lesser stage. Women in the peri menopause stage can experience more irregular period than the younger age women as the result of diminishing of sex hormones, including estrogen and progesterone.

2. Reproductive diseases
Reproductive diseases such as fibroids, uterine bleeding and polyps can cause abnormal bleeding between period or heavy bleeding in the period.

3. Metrorrhagia
Metrorrhagia is defined as a condition of irregular period between expecting period.

4. Stop Using of birth control pill
Women who stop using of the birth control pill may experience irregular menstruation as a result of the women reproductive organs require time to adjust to the withdraw of the pill.

5. Birth control pill
Birth control can alter the length, blood volume, that can lead to irregular menstruation as a result of hormonal change.

6. Intensive exercise
In most cases, women who are extremely active in sports activities, are experience absence of period but in some women, it is the irregular menstruation instead.

7. Stress
Stress can cause hormonal change and prolonged period of stress can cause hormonal change large enough to affect the menstrual cycle normality.

8. Diet
Unhealthy diet such as typical American diet with high in saturated and trans fat with less fruit and vegetable is at higher risk of irregular menstruation of a result of hormonal change.

9. Medical condition
Certain medical condition such as disorders of the thyroid gland can cause menstrual irregularities if the levels of thyroid hormone in the blood become too low or too high.

10. Eating disorder Eating disorder that can affect your monthly cycle as a result of irregular menstruation. According to the article of "Eating disorders may disrupt menstruation" By Anne Harding, posted in Reuters, the author wrote that any type of eating disorder can boost a woman's likelihood of having irregular menstrual periods, a new study confirms in a survey of 1,705 women participating in a genetic study who met strict diagnostic criteria for eating disorders, Bulik and her team found menstrual irregularities including absence of periods, skipping periods, and very light periods among women with every subtype of eating disorder, including bulimia nervosa,

11. Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome
According to a study of 13 females with delayed sleep phase syndrome and 13 healthy controls. The subjects responded to a questionnaire regarding their reproductive health, including irregularity of their cycle and premenstrual symptoms, either in the past or present by Kari Sveum, of Northwestern University in Chicago, Ill presented on Tuesday at SLEEP 2008, the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies (APSS), researcher indicated that delayed sleep phase syndrome reported an irregular menstrual cycle compared to controls.

12. Nutrient deficiency
In an article of "Eating behaviors in female volleyball players - Nutrition and Women's Topics" posted in Nutrition Research Newsletter. FindArticles.com. 16 Aug, 2011., the author indicated that the results show that dietetics professionals must take a proactive role in educating female athletes about the potentially severe consequences of chronic energy restriction, nutrient deficiencies and menstrual dysfunction on physical performance and health, while emphasizing the importance of a balanced, nutrient-dense diet.

13. Etc.

Diagnosis
If you are experience some of the symptoms above. there are certain test that you doctor may order.
After taking the precise family history to rule out medication and diseases and a physical exam, including the pelvic exam to rule out the abnormality, including cervical polyp or fibroid, or a uterine infection, causes of irregular menstruation.
1. Complete blood count (CBC) test
The aims of the test is to rule out the irregular menstruation as a result of anemia.

2. Blood Clotting test
If you are experience heavy bleeding, blood test of coagulation is to rule out the bleeding problem

3. Pelvic ultrasound
The aims of the test is make sure and rule out the abnormalities of the uterus, ovaries and the fallopian tubes causes of irregular menstruation.

4. Thyroid test
The aim of the test is to rule out the abnormal levels (too high or too low) of thyroid hormone cause of irregular menstruation.

5. Etc.



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