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Friday, 29 November 2013

Meningitis - Antioxidants against meningitis

Meningitis is defined as a condition of inflammation of the protective membranes,  covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Meningitis, a life threaten disease, can kill and immediate action can and does save lives.(1) Although bacterial meningitis has become an uncommon disease in the developed world. Unfortunately, because of limited economic resources and poor living conditions, many developing countries are still affected by the devastating consequences of this life-threatening systemic infection(2)
Antioxidants against meningitis
a. Catechin
a.1. Anti-inflammatory effect
In the preparation of the gel of Chinese medicine catechu, and to observe the release mechanism in vitro and anti-inflammatory activity in rats, found that the optimum condition of extraction from catechu was as follows, the concentration of ethanol, ratio of raw material to solvent, ultrasonic time, and extraction temperature were 50% , 1: 12, 35 min and 60 degrees C, respectively. The formulation of catechu gel was carbomer-9 400.5 g, glycerol 5.0 g, the extracts of catechu 50.0 mL, and triethanomine 0.5 mL The gel was semitransparent and stable. The drugs released quickly. The catechu gel reduced the paw edema considerably in dose-dependent manner compared to carrageenan-induced rat, according to "[Preparation and pharmacodynamics studies on anti-inflammatory effect of catechu gel].[Article in Chinese]" by Zheng X, Zheng C.(41)

a.2. Anti-influenza virus activity
In the study of Polyphenolic compounds present in green tea, particularly catechins, and its effect on strong anti-influenza activity, found that therapeutic administration of green tea by-products via feed or water supplement resulted in a dose-dependent significant antiviral effect in chickens, with a dose of 10 g/kg of feed being the most effective (P < 0.001), according to "Anti-influenza virus activity of green tea by-products in vitro and efficacy against influenza virus infection in chickens" by Lee HJ, Lee YN, Youn HN, Lee DH, Kwak JH, Seong BL, Lee JB, Park SY, Choi IS, Song CS.(42)

b. Quercetin
b.1. Anti-Inflammatory effects
According to the study of `Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Quercetin 7-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside from the Leaves of Brasenia schreberi.`by Legault J, Perron T, Mshvildadze V, Girard-Lalancette K, Perron S, Laprise C, Sirois P, Pichette A. (Source from Laboratory for Analysis and Separation of Plant Species (LASEVE), Université du Québec à Chicoutimi , Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that some flavonoids have been reported to possess beneficial effects in cardiovascular and chronic inflammatory diseases associated with overproduction of nitric oxide. Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside possesses anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and release of nitric oxide by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside also inhibited overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor.

b.2.  Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities
According to the study of `Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of leaves, twigs and stem bark of Scutia buxifolia Reissek.`by Boligon AA, Janovik V, Frohlich JK, Spader TB, Forbrig Froeder AL, Alves SH, Athayde ML. (Source from a Phytochemical Research Laboratory, Department of Industrial Pharmacy , Federal University of Santa Maria , Build 26, room 1115 , Santa Maria , CEP 97105-900 , Brazil.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that quercitrin, isoquercitrin and rutin were identified by HPLC and may be partially responsible for the antimicrobial activities observed. This study reports for the first time the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of S. buxifolia leaves, twigs and stem bark.

c. Lycopene
c.1. Anti Inflammation
According to the study of `Inhibitory mechanism of lycopene on cytokine expression in experimental pancreatitis.`by Kim H. (Source from Department of Food and Nutrition, Brain Korea 21 Project, College of Human Ecology, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea. kim626@yonsei.ac.kr), posted in PubMed, researchers found that in pancreatic acinar cells, which is mediated by the activation of NADPH oxidase. Lycopene functions as a very potent antioxidant to suppress the induction of inflammatory cytokines, in pancreatic acinar cells stimulated with cerulein. In this review, the possible beneficial effect of lycopene on experimental pancreatitis shall be discussed based on its antioxidant activity.

c.2. Antioxidants
In the study of `Comparison of lycopene and tomato effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress in vitamin E deficient rats` by Delphine Gitenay, Bernard Lyan, Mathieu Rambeau, Andrzej Mazur and Edmond Rock. (Source from European Journal of Nutrition Volume 46, Number 8, 468-475, DOI: 10.1007/s00394-007-0687-2), posted in springerprotocols.com, researchers found that Our study showed for the first time that tomatoes, containing or not containing lycopene, have a higher potential than lycopene to attenuate and or to reverse oxidative stress-related parameters in a mild oxidative stress context.

d. Theaflavin
d.1. Antioxidant effects
In the investigation of four main TF derivatives (theaflavin (TF(1)), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF(2)A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF(2)B), and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF(3))) in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro, their properties of inhibiting superoxide, singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and the hydroxyl radical, and their effects on hydroxyl radical-induced DNA oxidative damage, found that compared with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), TF derivatives were good antioxidants for scavenging ROS and preventing the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage in vitro. TF(3) was the most positive in scavenging hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical, and TF(1) suppressed superoxide. Positive antioxidant capacities of TF(2)B on singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage in vitro were found, according to "Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of four main theaflavin derivatives through chemiluminescence and DNA damage analyses" by Wu YY, Li W, Xu Y, Jin EH, Tu YY.(43)

d.2. Antibacterial effects
in the evaluation of the antibacterial effects of various concentrations of theaflavin as well as combinations of theaflavin and epicatechin, using the disk diffusion assay, found that strong antibacterial activity of theaflavin against eight clinical isolates of S. maltophilia and A. baumannii. Significant synergy (P≤0.05) was also observed between theaflavin and epicatechin against all isolates, according to "Antibacterial effects of theaflavin and synergy with epicatechin against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia" by Betts JW, Kelly SM, Haswell SJ.(44)

3. Minerals(40)
a. Manganese
Manganese is an essential trace nutrient in all forms of life. It is well known for its role in helping the body to maintain healthy skin and bone structure, but also acts as cofactors for a number of enzymes in higher organisms, where they are essential in detoxification of superoxide (O2−, with one unpaired electron) free radicals. Although superoxide is biologically quite toxic and is deployed by the immune system to kill invading microorganisms by utilizing the enzyme NADPH oxidase. Any Mutations in the gene coding for the NADPH oxidase cause an immunodeficiency syndrome.

b. Zinc
Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods. The ability of zinc in inhibiting oxidative processes has been recognized for many years. Chronic effects, zinc enhances the introduction of metallothioneins, which help to capture the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals due to cysteine residues, resulting in lessening the risk of oxidative stress. Over acute effects, zinc may reduce the postischemic injury to a variety of tissues and organs by involving the antagonism of copper reactivity as a result from its antioxidant functions.

c. Copper
Copper, an essential trace element is essential for the absorption and utilization of iron and distributed widely in the body and occurs in liver. Antimicrobial and viral Copper enhances the immune function in fighting against foreign invasion, such as bacteria and virus, thus reducing the risk of infection and inflammation by utilizing the absorption of oxygen and production of energy within cells.

4. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15284663
(2) http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2803%2913693-8/fulltext
(41) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22256752
(42) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22184430
(43) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21887850
(44) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21885260