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Wednesday, 27 November 2013

Lower respiratory tract infection (Respiratory Disease) – Pneumonia Treatments In Herbal medicine perspective

Lower respiratory tract infection
The lower respiratory tract infection are the infection consisting of the trachea (wind pipe), bronchial tubes, the bronchioles, and the lungs, including the bronchitis and pneumonia. According to  The World Health Report 2004 – Changing History(1), in 2002 lower respiratory track infection were still the leading cause of deaths among all infectious diseases, and accounted for 3.9 million deaths worldwide and 6.9% of all deaths that year.
Pneumonia is defined as a condition of the inflammation of the lung as a result of infection, caused by bacteria, such as bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae or influenza viruses in most cases. Fungi, such as Pneumocystis jiroveci, certain medication such as PPI Stomach Acid Drugs and other conditions such as impaired immune systems.
G. Treatments
G.2. In Herbal medicine perspective
1. Crotalaria lachnophora
According to the study by University of Dschang, the 2 new isopropenyl-dihydrofuranoisoflavones, 7,2′,4′-trihydroxy-5”-isopropenyl-4”,5”-dihydrofurano[2'',3'':5,6]isoflavone (1) isolated  exhibiting antimicrobial properties have been isolated along with eight known compounds from the Cameroonian medicinal plant Crotalaria lachnophora, showed moderate inhibitory activities against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae(71).
2. Uraria picta
Two isoflavanones, 5,7-dihydroxy-2′-methoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavanone (2) and 4′,5-dihydroxy-2′,3′-dimethoxy-7-(5- hydroxyoxychromen-7yl)-isoflavanone (4) along with six known compounds including isoflavanones, triterpenes and steroids isolated from the roots of Uraria picta, showed the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) found to be in the range of 12.5-200 microg/ml against bacteria (both Gram positive and Gram negative) and fungi(72).
3.  Vitex agnus-castus
A new compound, 6a,11a-dihydro-6H-[1] benzofuro [3,2-c][1,3]dioxolo[4,5-g]chromen-9-ol was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Vitex agnus-castus. The structure of this compound was identified with the help of spectroscopic techniques ((13)C NMR, (1)H NMR, HMBC, HMQC, NOESY and COSY). The compound showed low urease- (32.0%) and chymotrypsin- (31.4%) inhibitory activity, and moderate (41.3%) anti-inflammatory activitym, according to the Center for Biotechnology and Microbiology University of Peshawar(73).
4. Fadogia ancylantha
Communities in Chilumba, Malawi use herbal tea prepared from Fadogia ancylantha Schweinf (Rubiaceae) leaves for the management of diabetes, hypertension and alleviation of symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders and pneumonia. In the study to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts of the leaves prepared by using three different extraction methods, found that the organic extract (12.5μg/ml) exhibited the highest in vitro glucose uptake increases in Chang cells (181.24±0.29%) and C2C12 muscle cells (172.29±0.32%) while the hot and cold aqueous extracts gave lower uptakes, 145.94±0.37% and 138.70±0.52% in Chang cells respectively. At 100μg/ml, aqueous extracts gave significantly higher (p<0.01) anti-oxidant activity (range 85.78-86.29%) than their organic counterpart (68.16%). The minimum inhibitory concentration (156μg/ml) was obtained in the organic extract against the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and moderate growth inhibition was observed with other test micro-organisms. The hot aqueous extract inhibited the growth of all test organisms except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cold aqueous extract was inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The differences in the MIC values between the aqueous extracts seem to suggest that raised temperatures, as traditionally practised, facilitate the extraction of secondary bioactive metabolites(74).

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Sources  
(71) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21265557
(72) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17540419
(73) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21058321
(74) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22800680