The lower respiratory tract infection are the infection consisting of the trachea (wind pipe), bronchial tubes, the bronchioles, and the lungs, including the bronchitis and pneumonia. According to The World Health Report 2004 – Changing History(1), in 2002 lower respiratory track infection were still the leading cause of deaths among all infectious diseases, and accounted for 3.9 million deaths worldwide and 6.9% of all deaths that year.
Pneumonia is defined as a condition of the inflammation of the lung as a result of infection, caused by bacteria, such as bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae or influenza viruses in most cases. Fungi, such as Pneumocystis jiroveci, certain medication such as PPI Stomach Acid Drugs and other conditions such as impaired immune systems.
B.2. Diseased associated to pneumonia
1. Sickle Cell Disease
In a study of 335,348 black women with a delivery during 2004-2010, 1,526 had a diagnosis of SCD (0.5 %) and to Compare them with women without SCD who had chronic conditions, found that women with SCD had higher prevalence of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, obstetric shock, pneumonia, sepsis, postpartum infection, and transfusions. SCD was also positively associated with acute renal failure, cerebrovascular disorder, respiratory distress syndrome, eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, and ventilation when compared with women without SCD and chronic conditions(41).
2. Rheumatoid arthritis
Although reports of serious infections in clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with tocilizumab, anti-interleukin6 (IL-6) receptor antibody, have been relatively few, there is still some concern about infections. There is a report of 2 case of who developed severe pneumonia during tocilizumab treatment for RA(42).
Diabetes mellitus is often identified as an independent risk factor for developing lower respiratory tract infections(43).
4. Other diseases
According to the study by the University of Washington School of Medicine, patients with a wide variety of disease states, including advanced age, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, collagen vascular disease, cancer, heart failure, and organ transplantation are potentially at increased risk for pneumonia because of disease-related impairments in host defenses(44).
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