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Wednesday, 27 November 2013

Lower respiratory tract infection (Respiratory Disease) – Bronchitis – Diseases associated with Bronchitis

Lower respiratory tract infection
The lower respiratory tract infection are the infection consisting of the trachea (wind pipe), bronchial tubes, the bronchioles, and the lungs, including the bronchitis and pneumonia. According to  The World Health Report 2004 – Changing History(1), in 2002 lower respiratory track infection were still the leading cause of deaths among all infectious diseases, and accounted for 3.9 million deaths worldwide and 6.9% of all deaths that year.
Bronchitis is defined as a condition of an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi, the larger and medium-sized airways that carry airflow from the trachea into the lung parenchyma(7). Most cases of Bronchitis are as a result of recurrent injure to the airways caused by inhaled irritants and cigarette smoking(6).
B.2. Diseases associated with Bronchitis
1. Diabetes mellitus
In the study of 311 patients with chronic occupational bronchitis associated with diabetes mellitus (or diabetes-free) revealed lipid metabolism disorders presenting with overweight, obesity, dyslipoproteinemia. Diabetes mellitus addition to chronic bronchitis increased frequency of lipid metabolism disorders and higher values of lipid state. The revealed lipid metabolism disorders were more marked in the females(23).
2. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection and Flu (Influenza)
In the study to examine the relationship between physician visit time and antibiotic prescribing for children with viral respiratory tract infection (RTI), found that in the 2739 visits from the NAMCS database, representing 119,926 visits nationally, met study criteria. Antibiotics were prescribed at 46,949 (39%) visits-75% with a diagnosis of bronchitis, 54% with bronchiolitis, and 30% with cold or URI. After adjusting for factors related to physician visit time, there was no difference in visit duration when antibiotics were or were not prescribed (13.6 +/- 8.4 and 13.3 +/- 9.6 minutes, respectively, P = 0.24)(24).
3. Lung cancer
In the study to clarify the role of previous lung diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia, and tuberculosis) in the development of lung cancer, by conducting conducted a pooled analysis of studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium,  showed that a history of chronic bronchitis conferred a relative risk of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.29, 1.68 (13 studies)). Tuberculosis (relative risk = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.87 (16 studies)) and pneumonia (relative risk = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.01 (12 studies)) were also associated with lung cancer risk(25).
4. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
I According to the study in the evaluating  the association between the frequency of acid reflux (AR) and weakly acid reflux (WAR) and specific respiratory symptoms (RS) in childhood, showed that a  higher number of AR over WAR events was detected (p < 0.0001) but the WAR-to-AR events ratio progressively decreased with the age of the subjects (p < 0.01). Similar total number of reflux events was found in the three age group and in children with a more prevalent WAR or AR. The most prevalent RS, equally distributed among the three age groups, were persistent and/or nocturnal cough, wheezy bronchitis/asthma, and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections (RLRTI)(26).
5. Emphysema
Pulmonary emphysema, together with chronic bronchitis is a part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
6. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.who.int/whr/2004/en/
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC130746/
(7) http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/bronchitis-chronic/understanding-chronic-bronchitis.html
(23) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23156061
(24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16713933
(25) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22986146
(26) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21334184