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Wednesday, 27 November 2013

Lower respiratory tract infection (Respiratory Disease) – Antioxidants and Pneumonia

Lower respiratory tract infection
The lower respiratory tract infection are the infection consisting of the trachea (wind pipe), bronchial tubes, the bronchioles, and the lungs, including the bronchitis and pneumonia. According to  The World Health Report 2004 – Changing History(1), in 2002 lower respiratory track infection were still the leading cause of deaths among all infectious diseases, and accounted for 3.9 million deaths worldwide and 6.9% of all deaths that year.
Pneumonia is defined as a condition of the inflammation of the lung as a result of infection, caused by bacteria, such as bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae or influenza viruses in most cases. Fungi, such as Pneumocystis jiroveci, certain medication such as PPI Stomach Acid Drugs and other conditions such as impaired immune systems.
F. Preventions
F.3.4. Antioxidants to prevent pneumonia
1. Hyperbaric oxygenation as antioxidant
In the study to use Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) in a complex intensive therapy of 194 children, aged 3 days to 3 years, with severe pneumonias, showed that initially the patients have revealed intensification of free radical processes (FRP) with a simultaneous decrease in the level of enzyme and non-enzyme protection and a drastic increase in gluco- and mineralocorticoid adrenal function. HBO and antioxidants (unithiol and alpha-tocopherol) yielded excellent and good results (a drop in FRP level and activation of enzyme antioxidant protection) in 75.8% of patients. HBO was ineffective in 17% of cases, in 7.2% of patients signs of the developing oxygen intoxication have been revealed(65).
2. Vitamin D
In the study to determine the role of oral vitamin D supplementation for resolution of severe pneumonia in under-five children in Two hundred children [mean (SD) age: 13.9 (11.7) months; boys: 120] between 2 months to 5 years with severe pneumonia, showed that Short-term supplementation with oral vitamin D (1000-2000 IU per day for 5 days) has no beneficial effect on resolution of severe pneumonia in under-five children. Further studies need to be conducted with higher dose of Vitamin D or longer duration of supplementation to corroborate these findings(66).
3. Zinc
Diarrhoeal disorders and acute respiratory infections (ARIs), especially pneumonia, are the most common causes of death in low-income countries.  According to teh study by the Departments of Community Medicine and Child Health, Christian Medical College, zinc supplementation had no overall effect on the duration of hospitalization or of clinical signs associated with severe infection in young children hospitalized for severe pneumonia in southern India. This finding differs from the results of 2 previously reported trials wherein zinc supplementation was associated with a shorter period of recovery from severe pneumonia. Given the conflicting results, further research in representative settings is required to help clarify the role of zinc in the treatment of severe pneumonia(67).
4. Vitamin-A, vitamin C, vitamin E, folic acid and zinc
In a  cross-sectional and controlled clinical trial conducted in under-5 children to compare the effects of supplementation of five micronutrients (vitamin-A, vitamin C, vitamin E, folic acid and zinc) on the morbidity and on the duration of hospital stay in pneumonia, by Rangpur Medical College, found that the average duration of hospital staying was 6.75 days in intervention group and 7.75 days in control group (p<0.01). Chest indrawing and fast breathing disappeared earlier in the intervention group (p<0.01) suggesting that supplementation of micronutrients decrease the morbidity and duration of hospital stay of children suffering from pneumonia(68).
5. Etc.
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Sources  
(65) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1862993
(66) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21992858
(67) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16685051
(68) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18946457