Cardiovascular disease is defined as medical conditions affecting the cardiovascular system, including heart, blood vessels(arteries and veins).
II. Ischemic heart disease
Ischemic heart disease is defined as a condition of reduced blood supply of the heart muscle, as a result of coronary artery disease caused by plague building up in the arteries.
D.2. Diet to prevent Ischemic heart disease
The aims of the diet is to reduce the unhealthy diet and coronary artery disease risk factors causes of Ischemic heart disease.
1. Avocados are a commercially valuable fruit and are cultivated in tropical climates throughout the world, it is a green-skinned, pear-shaped fruit that ripens after harvesting and native to the Caribbean, Mexico, South America and Central America, belonging to the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
In the determination of the atherogenicity of avocado oil relative to saturated (coconut oil), monounsaturated (olive oil) and polyunsaturated (corn oil) fats found that Coconut oil was the most atherogenic fat. Corn oil was only slightly less atherogenic than either olive or avocado oils. Percentage of serum HDL cholesterol was highest in the rabbits fed the two monounsaturated fats, according to "Cholesterol vehicle in experimental atherosclerosis 24: avocado oil" by Kritchevsky D, Tepper SA, Wright S, Czarnecki SK, Wilson TA, Nicolosi RJ.(30)
b. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prevent and treat Diabetes. Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(31)
c. Heart diseases
c.1.The chemical compound Beta-Sitosterol is found effectively in reducing the bad cholesterol and leaving the good cholesterol untouched by inhibiting the amount our body can absorb, thus reducing the risk of plague building up in the arterial walls, leading to heart diseases, according to the study of "The Effect of Beta Sitosterol on the Serum Lipids of Young Men with Arteriosclerotic Heart Disease" by JOHN W. FARQUHAR M.D.; RALPH E. SMITH M.D.; MARY E. DEMPSEY M.S., posted in Circulation(32)
2. Almond consists of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed (nut) inside is native to the Middle East. It is most widely cultivated seed in the world for it economic and health benefit.
a. . Cholesterol
In the research of almond consumption in the improvement of serum lipid profiles found that almond consumption ranging from 25 to 168 g/day significantly lowered total cholesterol [weighted mean difference -6.95 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI] -13.12 to -0.772) (-0.18 mmol/L [95% CI -0.34 to -0.02])] and showed a strong trend toward reducing LDL cholesterol [weighted mean difference -5.79 mg/dL (95% CI -11.2 to 0.00) (-0.15 mmol/L [95% CI -0.29 to 0.00])]. No significant effect on HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, or LDL:HDL ratio was found, according to "Almonds have a neutral effect on serum lipid profiles: a meta-analysis of randomized trials" by Phung OJ, Makanji SS, White CM, Coleman CI.(34)
In the evaluation of antioxidant properties of almond green husks (Cvs. Duro Italiano, Ferraduel, Ferranhês, Ferrastar and Orelha de Mula), chestnut skins and chestnut leaves (Cvs. Aveleira, Boa Ventura, Judia and Longal) found that all the assayed by-products revealed good antioxidant properties, with very low EC(50) values (lower than 380 μg/mL), particularly for lipid peroxidation inhibition (lower than 140 μg/mL). The total phenols and flavonoids contents were also determined. The correlation between these bioactive compounds and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in pig brain tissue through formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also obtained, according to "Antioxidant potential of chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) and almond (Prunus dulcis L.) by-products" by Barreira JC, Ferreira IC, Oliveira MB, Pereira JA.(35)
c. Cardiovascular diseases
Since it contains high amount of Omega 3 fatty acid, it helps to prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases by reducing arrhythmias and altering production of prostaglandins, which reduces inflammation and improves platelet and endothelial function, according to "Omega-3 Fatty acids for cardiovascular disease prevention" by Defilippis AP, Blaha MJ, Jacobson TA.(36)
3. Salmon is the common name for Salmonidae. They are anadromous, born in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then travel thousands of miles in the deep sea cold water throughout their life cycle and within to five years returning to the exacted location where they were born to reproduce and die.
In the investigation of Intake of fish and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids is associated with a reduced concentration of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG) found that intake of cod or salmon when compared with the control group. In conclusion, both lean and fatty fish may lower TAG, possibly by reducing the 18:1n-9/18:0 ratio related to allosteric inhibition of SCD1 activity, rather than by influencing the synthesis of enzyme protein, according to "Daily Intake of Cod or Salmon for 2 Weeks Decreases the 18:1n-9/18:0 Ratio and Serum Triacylglycerols in Healthy Subjects" by Telle-Hansen VH, Larsen LN, Høstmark AT, Molin M, Dahl L, Almendingen K, Ulven SM.(37)
b. Weight loss
In the investigation of supplementation with n3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-LCPUFA) and its effect in body weight, found that At the end of the 1-month period, 16 children lost weight and 27 children gained weight. Multiple analysis demonstrated that supplementation with n3-LCPUFA decreased HOMA-IR by 15% after adjusting for puberty, treatment adherence, changes in adipokines, and weight loss. Interaction between supplementation and weight loss was significant (p = 0.007), according to "Supplementation of n3 Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Synergistically Decreases Insulin Resistance with Weight Loss of Obese Prepubertal and Pubertal Children" by López-Alarcón M, Martínez-Coronado A, Velarde-Castro O, Rendón-Macías E, Fernández J.(38)
In the assessment of an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks,
found that these effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain whole body cholesterol levels but not HUFA levels, according to "Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)" by Leaver MJ, Villeneuve LA, Obach A, Jensen L, Bron JE, Tocher DR, Taggart JB.(39)
d. Coronary heart disease
In determination of Omega-3-fatty acids play a protective role in the prevention of CHD,
found that The treatment with salmon oil led to a decrease of triglycerides in patients with hypertriglyceridemia and to an increase of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia. Following the increase of malondialdehyde as measure of the lipid peroxidation a substitution of antioxidants, like vitamin E and vitamin C, seems to be useful. Further investigations are necessary before wide use of fish-oil capsules, not least to avoid side-effects, according to "[Changes in parameters of lipid metabolism and anti-oxidative potentials in elderly hyperlipoproteinemic patients treated with omega-3 fatty acids].[Article in German]" by Reuter W, Vorberg B, Sauer I, Krumpolt C.(40)
In the research of the antioxidant effect of vitamin E after ingestion of salmon found that that megadoses of vitamin E, far from having pro-oxidative activity, actually increase the anti-oxidative capacity of the liver, especially after ingestion of salmon oil, according to "Effects of megadoses of dietary vitamin E on the antioxidant status of rats fed lard or salmon oil" by Flader D, Brandsch C, Hirche F, Eder K.(41)
4. Soy sauce is a seasoning produced by fermenting soybeans and filamentous fungus, along with water and salt after a period of sometime, it yields a moromi or thick mash of cereal to obtain soy sauce by pressing it to liquid form. Tamari is made by collecting the liquid which was pressed and the liquid drained drains from miso after a certain time of fermentation.
a. Cardiovascular health
In the investigation of dietary proteins and their effect in heart diseases found that a direct cholesterol lowering effect of proteins has not been shown. Despite earlier research indicating that soy protein has cardioprotective effects as compared to other proteins, these observations have not been confirmed by randomized placebo-controlled trials. However, most experts recommend the consumption of foods rich in plant proteins as alternatives to meat and dairy products rich in saturated fat and containing cholesterol, according to "Dietary proteins and atherosclerosis" by Darioli R.(42)
b. Hypolipidemic effect
In the observation of Soy sauce (Shoyu), a traditional Japanese fermented seasoning and its effect on cholesterol level found that in a 4-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study, hyperlipidemic men (TG >150 mg/dl) were treated with 600 mg of SPS (n=15) or placebo (n=15) daily. After 4 weeks, serum TG levels in the SPS-treated group were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the baseline (0 week). In conclusion, SPS of soy sauce reduce lipid absorption, and soy sauce is a potentially promising seasoning for the treatment of hyperlipidemia through food, according to "Hypolipidemic effect of Shoyu polysaccharides from soy sauce in animals and humans" by Kobayashi M, Magishi N, Matsushita H, Hashimoto T, Fujimoto M, Suzuki M, Tsuji K, Saito M, Inoue E, Yoshikawa Y, Matsuura T.(43)
5. Pear is Genus Pyrus containg over 30 difference species, belongs to the family Rosaceae and native to western Europe and north Africa east right across Asia. Today, it is cultivation in the cool temperated weather regions all over the world for commercial purposes.
In the classification of betalains in juices prepared from Moroccan yellow cactus pears and its antioxidant effect found that the pigments tested act as mixed inhibitors. The inhibitive action of the extracts is discussed in term of adsorption and that such adsorption follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated values of the free energy of adsorption indicated that the adsorption process is spontaneous, according to "Betalain: a particular class of antioxidant pigment" by El Gharras H.(44)
In the assessment of pigmented bioactive compounds, (eg, carotenoids, anthocyanidins, and flavonoids) and theirs effect on stroke found that Higher intake of white fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with incident stroke (Q4, >171 g/d, versus Q1, ≤78 g/d; HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.29-0.77). Each 25-g/d increase in white fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a 9% lower risk of stroke (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.97). Apples and pears were the most commonly consumed white fruit and vegetables (55%), according to "Colors of fruit and vegetables and 10-year incidence of stroke" by Oude Griep LM, Verschuren WM, Kromhout D, Ocké MC, Geleijnse JM.(45)
c. Dietary fiberDaily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(46)
6. Tomato is a red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belongs to family Solanaceae, native to South America. Because of its health benefits, tomato is grown world wide for commercial purpose
and often in green house.
a. Cardiovascular diseases
In the review of patents and products within the context of lycopene and CVD prevention and health claims indicated that in vitro data and results from animal experiments partly showed promising preventive mechanisms of lycopene. In contrast, until now, human intervention studies mostly failed to show any CVD prevention. However, there is still an encouraging situation, giving hints for antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory effects of lycopene. These mechanisms could be the background for cardio-protective effects of tomatoes and tomato products, according to "Lycopene and heart health" by Böhm V.(47)
b. Antioxidative and Cancer Cell-Inhibiting Activities
In the research of Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) plants synthesize nutrients, pigments, and bioactive compounds and their benefit in nutrition and human health found that Tomato extracts promoted growth in normal liver (Chang) cells, had little effect in normal lung (Hel299) cells, mildly inhibited growth of lung cancer (A549) cells, and first promoted and then, at higher concentrations, inhibited growth in lymphoma (U937) cells. The relationship of cell growth to measured constituents was not apparent, according to "Free Amino Acid and Phenolic Contents and Antioxidative and Cancer Cell-Inhibiting Activities of Extracts of 11 Greenhouse-Grown Tomato Varieties and 13 Tomato-Based Foods" by Choi SH, Kim HR, Kim HJ, Lee IS, Kozukue N, Levin CE, Friedman M.(48)
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