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Wednesday, 6 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Vegetables - Kale (Brassica Oleracea)






Kale
Kale is a species of Brassica Oleracea, belong to the family Brassicaceae, native to coastal southern and western Europe. Since kale's leave is highly nutritious and easy to growth with range of long season from the middle of winter through the beginning of spring, it is cultivated as foods in most part of Europe.

Nutritional Supplements

1. Carbohydrate
2. Dietary Fiber
3. Vitamin A
4. Vitamin C
5. Niacin
6. Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
7. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
8. Vitamin B6
9. Folate
10. Pantothenic Acid
11. Vitamin K
12. Vitamin E
13. Copper
14. Potassium - 296 mg
15. Phosphorus
16. Magnesium
17. Calcium
18. Iron
19. Sodium
20. Zinc
21. Copper
22. Manganese
23. Selenium
24. Omega 3 Fatty Acid
25. Tryptophan
26. Etc.

Health Benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone)
Vitamin K1 is commonly used to treat warfarin toxicity, and an antidote for coumatetralyl. In the research of the absorption and plasma disappearance of vitamin K were investigated by uniformly labelling phylloquinone in kale with carbon-13 found that Modelling results demonstrated a mean (n 6) bioavailability of phylloquinone from kale to be 4.7%. Plasma and tissue half-times for phylloquinone were found to be 8.8 and 215 h, respectively, according to "Vitamin K absorption and kinetics in human subjects after consumption of 13C-labelled phylloquinone from kale" by Novotny JA, Kurilich AC, Britz SJ, Baer DJ, Clevidence BA.(a)

2. Beta-carotene, lutein, and retinol
In the investigation of plasma appearance of labeled beta-carotene, lutein, and retinol in humans after consumption of kale found that A positive relationship was observed between baseline plasma retinol levels and [13C]retinol plasma response. It is possible that this relationship was mediated either through some aspect of beta-carotene absorption or via the common pathways of metabolism for postdose and endogenous retinoid, according to "Plasma appearance of labeled beta-carotene, lutein, and retinol in humans after consumption of isotopically labeled kale" by Novotny JA, Kurilich AC, Britz SJ, Clevidence BA.(b)

3. Hepatic lutein concentrations
In the evaluation of the chemopreventive potential of water extracts of the Brassica vegetables cabbage and kale found that despite the absence of inhibitory effects of cabbage and kale aqueous extracts on placental glutathione S-transferase-positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL)., these Brassica vegetables presented protection against DNA damage, an effect possibly related to increased hepatic lutein concentrations. However, it must be pointed out that the cause-effect relationship between lutein levels and protection is hypothetical and remains to be demonstrated, according to "Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis" by Horst MA, Ong TP, Jordão AA Jr, Vannucchi H, Moreno FS, Lajolo FM.(c)

4. Ulcerative colitis
In the examination of PEO, an essential oil containing >95% natural PEITC, a phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC) produced by Brassica food plants found that PEO might be a promising candidate to develop as a treatment for ulcerative colitis patients. The disease attenuation by PEO is likely associated with suppression of activation of STAT1 transcription and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, according to "Dietary phenethylisothiocyanate attenuates bowel inflammation in mice' by Dey M, Kuhn P, Ribnicky D, Premkumar V, Reuhl K, Raskin I.(d)

5. Arthritis and associated disorders
In the observation of 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural compound formed during the autolysis of glucobrassicin present in Brassica food plants found that in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed the inhibition of RANKL by DIM. DIM has shown anti-arthritis activity in animal models via inhibiting the expression of RANKL, and thus may offer potential treatments for arthritis and associated disorders, according to "3,3'-Diindolylmethane attenuates experimental arthritis and osteoclastogenesis" by Dong L, Xia S, Gao F, Zhang D, Chen J, Zhang J.(e)

6. Etc

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin K
Vitamin K not only plays an important role in protecting our skin from aging, it is also needed for the proper clotting of blood, thus decreasing the risk of excessive bleeding, in a study of "Delayed vitamin K deficiency as a cause of bleeding: still a concern in the 21st century!" by Kasatkar P, Shetty S, Ghosh K., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Laboratory tests confirmed acquired bleeding diathesis due to vitamin K deficiency, which was corrected after adequate vitamin K supplementation. VKDB is not an uncommon phenomenon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a child with bleeding diathesis.

2. Vitamin A
Vitamin A is not only important in preventing types I diabetes, according to "A close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities in skin tissues" by Takahashi N, Takasu S.(I) but also may be associated with compromised bone health, according to "Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D" by Ahmadieh H, Arabi A.(II)

3. Vitamin C
a. Asthma
Vitamin C is one of the key antioxidant vitamins which is abundant in the extracellular fluid lining the lung and low vitamin C intake has been associated with pulmonary dysfunction, such as asthma, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(III)

b. DNA Damage
Ascorbic acid (AA), known as vitamin C, has important antioxidant vitamin has exerted the activity in preventing (imazalil)IMA-induced cause of DNA damage, according to the stuyd of "The protective role of ascorbic acid on imazalil-induced genetic damage assessed by the cytogenetic tests' by Türkez H, Aydin E.(IV)

4. Manganese
Manganese beside plays an vital role for the proper and normal growth of human bone structure (accodring to the study of "Bone formation within alumina tubes: effect of calcium, manganese, and chromium dopants" by Pabbruwe MB, Standard OC, Sorrell CC, Howlett CR., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15109850)), it also helps to reduce the risk of cancer, (according to the study of "The effects of 3, 4 or 5 amino salicylic acids on manganese-induced neuronal death: ER stress and mitochondrial complexes" by Yoon H, Lee GH, Kim DS, Kim KW, Kim HR, Chae HJ., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21477646 researchers indicated that the salicylate analogues and the antioxidants did not mediate ER stress in this model. The salicylate analogues reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reversed the deficient mitochondrial membrane potential that was induced by Mn. Taken together, the 3, 4, 5 ASA worked in a similar way, regulating the Mn-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and protecting cells.

5. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(V)

6. Etc

C. Other health benefits
1. Free radicals
Since kale is a highly nutritious vegetable with powerful antioxidant properties, it enhances the immune system in guarding our body
a) Against the forming of free radical, cell damage caused by oxidation, irregular cell growth causes of tumors and cancer, according to the study of "Efficacy of antioxidant vitamins and selenium supplement in prostate cancer prevention: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials" by Jiang L, Yang KH, Tian JH, Guan QL, Yao N, Cao N, Mi DH, Wu J, Ma B, Yang SH., posted in PubMed(1)
b) Against the risk of inflammation and infection caused by foreign invasion, according to "IX. Immune System" posted in Antioxidants(2)

2. Bone density
Magnesium enhances the digestive system in absorbing calcium, by maintaining the proper ratio between them, according to the study of "Associations of calcium and magnesium in serum and hair with bone mineral density in premenopausal women" by Song CH, Barrett-Connor E, Chung JH, Kim SH, Kim KS., posted in PubMed(3)

3. Skin health
Vitamin C and K in kale decrease the risk of bleeding (Vitamin C and K) and protects the loss skin under layer (vitamin K) due to aging. Vitamin A maintains normal skin health by switching on genes and differentiating (immature skin cells) into mature epidermal cells and vitamin E and C protest skin from aging, according to the study of "Main approaches for delivering antioxidant vitamins through the skin to prevent skin ageing" by Gašperlin M, Gosenca M., posted in PubMed(4)

4. Vision health
Vitamin A protects against mascular degeneration caused by free radical, promotes good vision, according to the study of "The intake of carotenoids in an older Australian population: The Blue Mountains Eye Study" by Manzi F, Flood V, Webb K, Mitchell P., posted in PubMed(5)

5. Etc.

Side Effects
It is advised for people with untreated kidney and gallbladder should consult with their doctor before consuming kale due to measurable amount of oxalates.



Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20420753
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15897604
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20401431
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20423518
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19854159

(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21967159
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986888
(V) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20661819
(2) http://the-anti-aging-guide.blogspot.com/2011/04/ix-immune-system.html
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17848724
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21599565
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12020387