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Wednesday, 6 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Vegetables - Eggplant (Solanum Melongena)


Eggplant is a species of S. melongena, belongs to the family Solanaceae and native to India. The plant is believed has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory. It is famous with its deeply purple and the best eggplant can be found from August through October when it is in season.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
7. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
8. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
9. Pantothenic acid (B5)
10. Vitamin B6
11. Folate (Vitamin B9)
12. Vitamin C
13. Tryptophan
14. Manganese
15. Calcium
16. Copper
17. Iron
18. Magnesium
19. Phosphorus
20. Potassium
21. Zinc
22. Etc.

Benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Cardioprotective properties
In the investigation t
he role of raw and grilled eggplants on cardioprotection using an isolated perfusion heart model found that the antioxidant vitamins, including vitamin A, vitamin C and β-carotene, were lower and some of the polyphenolic components, especially nasunin content, were higher in grilled eggplants, but they were unable to demonstrate better cardioprotective properties compared to the raw fruit., according to "Cardioprotective properties of raw and cooked eggplant (Solanum melongena L)" by Das S, Raychaudhuri U, Falchi M, Bertelli A, Braga PC, Das DK.(I)

2.
Antioxidant compounds
In the assessment of Thermal treatment of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its effect on human neutrophil burst found that successive extract dilutions showed a significant activity up to 1.25 microg/mL after cooking, while raw fruits resulted in an activity up to 10.00 microg/mL. These results showed that the thermal treatment commonly used before consumption can increase the content and biological activity of antioxidant compounds of eggplants, according to "Thermal treatment of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) increases the antioxidant content and the inhibitory effect on human neutrophil burst" by Lo Scalzo R, Fibiani M, Mennella G, Rotino GL, Dal Sasso M, Culici M, Spallino A, Braga PC.(II)

3.
Brain homogenates
In the classification ofAntioxidant activity of nasunin, an anthocyanin in eggplant peels and theirs effect on lipid peroxidation found that Nasunin protection against H(2)O(2)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate was measured at 586 nm using the indicator of malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals. Nasunin (<50 microM) protected against lipid peroxidation of brain homogenates. The findings suggest that nasunin is a potent O(2)(-) scavenger and has protective activity against lipid peroxidation, according to "Antioxidant activity of nasunin, an anthocyanin in eggplant peels" by Noda Y, Kneyuki T, Igarashi K, Mori A, Packer L.(III)

4.
Lipid peroxidation
In the observation of Delphinidine-3-(p-coumaroylrutinoside)-5-glucoside (nasunin), an anthocyanin was isolated as purple colored crystals from eggplant peels and it effects on Lipid peroxidation found that Nasunin (1 microM) significantly protected against lipid peroxidation of brain homogenates (p<0.001) as measured by malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals. These findings demonstrate that nasunin is a potent O2*- scavenger and iron chelator which can protect against lipid peroxidation, according to "Antioxidant activity of nasunin, an anthocyanin in eggplant" by Noda Y, Kaneyuki T, Igarashi K, Mori A, Packer L.(IV)

5.
Type 2 diabetes and hypertensionIn the assessment of phenolic extracts of eggplanttype and its effect on 2 diabetes found that phenolic-enriched extracts of eggplant with moderate free radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activity had high alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity and in specific cases moderate to high angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Inhibition of these enzymes provide a strong biochemical basis for management of type 2 diabetes by controlling glucose absorption and reducing associated hypertension, respective, according to "In vitro studies of eggplant (Solanum melongena) phenolics as inhibitors of key enzymes relevant for type 2 diabetes and hypertension" by Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Shetty K.(V)

6. Etc.

B. Health Benefits according to the concentration

1. Diabetes
Fiber and low soluble carbohydrate content of eggplant help to inhibit enzymes that provide a strong biochemical information in managing of type 2 diabetes by controlling glucose absorption, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(1)

2. Bone health
Potassium beside is best known for its function of balancing the ration of sodium in regulating the lymphatic fluid circulation, it also plays an important role in reducing the risk of bone loss, according to the study of "Invited review: Dairy intake and bone health: A viewpoint from the state of the art" by Caroli A, Poli A, Ricotta D, Banfi G, Cocchi D.(2)

3. Epileptic seizures,
Deficieny of Manganese may trigger for epileptic seizures, according to the sudy of "The influence of manganese supplementation on seizure onset and severity, and brain monoamines in the genetically epilepsy prone rat" Critchfield JW, Carl GF, Keen CL. (3)

4. Copper
Copper is a component of numerous enzymes that affect a wide variety of metabolic processes, defieciency of copper may cause Osteochondrosis, skeletal abnormalities and enzootic ataxia,
according to the study of "Osteochondrosis, skeletal abnormalities and enzootic ataxia associated with copper deficiency in a farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) herd" by Audigé L, Wilson PR, Morris RS, Davidson GW.(4)

5. Etc.

C. Other health Benefits
1. Nasunin
Since its skin contain high amount of Nasunin, it not only helps to protect the brain membrane being damaged as a result of forming of free radicals, but also prevent cancer cells from growing and spreading by stopping the development of new blood vessels, according to the study of "Antiangiogenic activity of nasunin, an antioxidant anthocyanin, in eggplant peels" by Matsubara K, Kaneyuki T, Miyake T, Mori M.(a)

2. Antioxidants and Liver protectionIts antioxidants (total amounts of phenolic and flavonoid) not only improve immune system infighting against foreign invasion of virus, bacteria and fungi, but also protect the against liver damage, according to the study of "Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of five eggplant varieties" by Akanitapichat P, Phraibung K, Nuchklang K, Prompitakkul S.(b)

3. Flavonoid
Eggplant contains high amount of flavonoid which can improve the capillary forces and reduce the risk of cerebral blood clots by enhancing the vascular permeability of the capillary blood vessels as a result of rutin and hesperidin(c).

4. Etc.

Side Effects
1. It may cause skin itching for some people after contacting.
2. It may cause oral allergy syndrome in some cases, including itching mouth.
3. Since it is oxalative, people with kidney disease should contact their doctor before consuming.
4. Consuming eggplant may reduce the absorption of calcium
5. Eggplant contains certain amount of nicotine.
6. It could affect the growth of unborn fetuses
7. Etc.



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Sources
(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21894326
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20187646
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10962130
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10100509
(V) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17706416

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20373888
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8095451
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16031812
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16076105
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20691749
(c) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavanoid