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Monday, 11 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Vegetables - Cauliflower (Brassica Oleracea)

Cauliflower is the species Brassica oleracea, including cabbage, brussels sprouts, kale and broccoli , belong to the family Brassicaceae, native to Italy.

Nutritional Supplements

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Omega 3 fatty acid
5. Protein
6. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
7. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
8. Niacin (VitaminB3)
9. Pantothenic acid (B5)
10. Vitamin B6
11. Folate (Vitamin. B9)
12. Vitamin C
13. Vitamin K
14. Calcium
15. Iron
16. Magnesium
17. Phosphorus
18. Potassium
19. Tryptophan
20. Zinc
21. Etc.

Health benefits

A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Anti-proliferative activity
In the investigation of regular consumption of fresh and cooked Brassicaceae and its effect in reducing the risk of cancer and heart disease found that Anti-proliferative and chemoprotective effects towards DNA oxidative damage of fresh and cooked vegetable extracts were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium and Comet assays on HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells. The fresh vegetable extracts showed the highest anti-proliferative and antioxidant activities on HT-29 cells (broccoli>cauliflower = Brussels sprouts). No genotoxic activity was detected in any of the samples tested. The cooking methods that were applied influenced the anti-proliferative activity of Brassica extracts but did not alter considerably the antioxidant activity presented by the raw vegetables. Raw, microwaved, boiled (except broccoli) and steamed vegetable extracts, at different concentrations, presented a protective antioxidative action comparable with vitamin C (1 mm), according to "Anti-proliferative activity and chemoprotective effects towards DNA oxidative damage of fresh and cooked Brassicaceae" by Ferrarini L, Pellegrini N, Mazzeo T, Miglio C, Galati S, Milano F, Rossi C, Buschini A.(a)

2. Colon cancer
In evaluation of iquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (LC-ESI) mass spectrometry two glucosinolates, glucoiberin and 3-hydroxy,4(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl glucosinolate of the aqueous extract of Brassica oleraceae L var. italica found that when myrosinase hydrolysate was tested for cytotoxic activity on the colon cancer cell line it showed very high activity - 95% lethality up to 0.78 µg/mL, according to "Myrosinase Hydrolysates of Brassica oleraceae L. Var. italica Reduce the Risk of Colon Cancer" by Hashem FA, Motawea H, El-Shabrawy AE, Shaker K, El-Sherbini S.(b)

3. Antioxidant capacity
In the classification of polyphenols, flavonoids and glucosinolates of vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family and theirs antioxidant effects found that the antibacterial activity was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. York cabbage extract exhibited significantly higher antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (100%) and Salmonella abony (94.3%), being the most susceptible at a concentration of 2.8%, whereas broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage had moderate to weak activity against all the test organisms. Good correlation (r2 0.97) was found between total phenolic content obtained by spectrophotometric analysis and the sum of the individual polyphenols monitored by HPLC-DAD, according to "Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of selected Irish Brassica vegetables" by Jaiswal AK, Rajauria G, Abu-Ghannam N, Gupta S.(c)

4. Anti inflamatory effect
In the research of Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) found abundantly in Brassica vegetables and it anti inflammatory effect found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and Akt was suppressed by BITC. BITC also inhibited ear edema formation and the protein expression of iNOS and COX-2 in mouse skin treated with TPA. We demonstrate that BITC is a potent anti-inflammatory agent, and the anti-inflammatory properties of BITC may result from the downregulation of NFkappaB signaling, according to "Benzyl isothiocyanate exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in murine macrophages and in mouse skin" by Lee YM, Seon MR, Cho HJ, Kim JS, Park JH.(d)

5. Arthritis
In the observation of 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural compound formed during the autolysis of glucobrassicin presented in Brassica food plants and its anti-arthritis effect, found that the inhibition of kappa B ligand (RANKL) by DIM. DIM has shown anti-arthritis activity in animal models via inhibiting the expression of RANKL, and thus may offer potential treatments for arthritis and associated disorders, according to "3,3'-Diindolylmethane attenuates experimental arthritis and osteoclastogenesis" by Dong L, Xia S, Gao F, Zhang D, Chen J, Zhang J.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin C
In the evaluation of pulmonary dysfunction. and it effects on pulmonary dysfunction found that At present, evidence from randomised-controlled trials is insufficient to recommend a specific role for vitamin C in the treatment of asthma. Further methodologically strong and large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed in order to address the question of the effectiveness of vitamin C in children with asthma but some outcome data showed effectiveness on lung function, symptom scores, IgE levels and inhaled steroid use. One small study showed a significant difference in % drop in FEV1 post-exercise, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(I)

2. Vitamin K
Vitamin K not only plays an important role in protecting our skin from aging, it is also needed for the proper clotting of blood, thus decreasing the risk of excessive bleeding, in a study of "Delayed vitamin K deficiency as a cause of bleeding: still a concern in the 21st century!" by Kasatkar P, Shetty S, Ghosh K., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Laboratory tests confirmed acquired bleeding diathesis due to vitamin K deficiency, which was corrected after adequate vitamin K supplementation. VKDB is not an uncommon phenomenon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a child with bleeding diathesis.

3. Folate
In the investigation of the prevalence and multifactorial etiology of anemia among Indian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and its effect on anemia, found that Anemia, particularly iron deficiency anemia and anemia of inflammation, is highly prevalent among children with HIV infection. Micronutrient supplements (iron and, folate) combined with ART(antiretroviral therapy) improved anemia in HIV-infected children, according to "The prevalence and etiology of anemia among HIV-infected children in India" by Shet A, Arumugam K, Rajagopalan N, Dinakar C, Krishnamurthy S, Mehta S, Shet AS.(II)

4. Vitamin B6
c. 1. Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine beside is important in enhancing the developing red blood cells by stimulating the production of hemoglobin, it also helps to keep blood sugar levels steady during the process of breaking down stored energy in gestation pregnancy, according to the study of "Improvement of oral glucose tolerance in gestational diabetes by pyridoxine" by Bennink HJ, Schreurs WH., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1131652)

c.2. It also plays a pivotal role as a methyl donor in the basic cellular process of methylation, through which methyl groups are transferred from one molecule to another, resulting in the formation of a wide variety of precess, including regulation of gene expression, protein function, and RNA metabolism. When levels of B6 are inadequate, it may cause faulty Methylation with high levels of homocysteine that can cause variety of disease, including cervical dysplasia, faulty detoxification and impaired DNA repair, etc., according to the study of "Back To Life Natural Health Center - Healthcare Through Natural Methods"(http://www.backtolifehealth.com/Methylation.htm)

5. Potassium
Potassium beside is important in maintaining the regular contraction and relaxation of the muscle, that helps to reducing the risk of hypokalemia, it also helps the lymphatic system in regulating the levels of fluid in the body, thus lessening the risk of lymphedema, swelling caused by the accumulation of lymph fluid. In a study of "Narrative review: evolving concepts in potassium homeostasis and hypokalemia" by Greenlee M, Wingo CS, McDonough AA, Youn JH, Kone BC., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19414841), researchers found that recent experimental insights into the participation of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in potassium homeostasis. New data make clear that feedforward homeostatic responses activate when decreased potassium intake is sensed, even when plasma potassium concentration is still within the normal range and before frank hypokalemia ensues, in addition to the classic feedback activation of renal potassium conservation when plasma potassium concentration decreases.

6. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(III)

7. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Anti-Tumors
Cauliflower contains high amount of glucosinolates which are potent inducers of protective enzymes that provide defense against cancer-causing chemicals, thus reducing the risk of developing liver, colon, mammary gland, pancreatic tumors, according to the article of "Glucosinolates" by Wikipedia(1)

2. Cancers
The compound indole-3-carbinol has exerted the peoperty in preventing the growth of tumor and cancer, as it may be considered as a potential natural cancer preventive compounds bnecuase of its mechanisms of action, according to the study of "Cancer prevention with natural compounds" Gullett NP, Ruhul Amin AR, Bayraktar S, Pezzuto JM, Shin DM, Khuri FR, Aggarwal BB, Surh YJ, Kucuk O.(2)

3. Antioxidants
Cauliflower improves the immune function in fighting against the forming of free radical due to its high amount of phytonutrients, according to the study of "Antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of Angelica keiskei, Oenanthe javanica and Brassica oleracea in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and in HCT116 human colon cancer cells" Kwon D, Yoon S, Carter O, Bailey GS, Dashwood RH(3)

4. Localized adjuvant Arthritis
Cauliflower contains high amount of Vitamin C that plays a role in the production of collagen, an important protein found in bones and joints that helps reduce the risk of infection and inflammation, according to the study of "Vitamin C influence on localized adjuvant arthritis" by
Davis RH, Rosenthal KY, Cesario LR, Rouw GR.(4)

5. Cardiovascular diseases
Omega 3 fatty acid helps to balance the ratio of fatty acid that reduces the risk of bad cholesterol forming of plagues that cause thickening and hardening of arterial wall, causing heart diseases, according to the study of "Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases" by Lavie CJ, Milani RV, Mehra MR, Ventura HO.(5)

6. Etc.

Side effects

1. Excessive intake of these cauliflower may cause health problems to some people who are susceptible to purine-related problems.
2. Also, purine can cause forming of kidney stone
3. Etc.

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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22088277
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22076869
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21941903
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19760383
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19854159

(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22009132
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332

(1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucosinolate
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20709209
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17119270
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2376830
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19660687