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Wednesday, 6 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Nuts & Seeds - Walnuts (Juglans)


Walnut tree is one of the Genus plant belong to the family Juglandaceae about 30–130 ft). It is cultivated for its nut and kernel and for commercial purpose all over the world.

Nutrients
1. Vitamin C
2. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
3. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
4. Niacin
5. Pantothenic Acid
6. Vitamin B6
7. Folate
8. Vitamin A
9. Potassium
10. Phosphorus
11. Calcium
12. Magnesium
13. Iron
14. Sodium
15. Manganese
16. Tryptophan
17. Zinc 18. Copper
19. Selenium
20. Omega 3 fatty acid
21. l-arginine
22. Etc.

Health benefits

A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Anti cancer
In the investigation of (pH, SCFA, bile acids, tocopherol, antioxidant capacity) fermentation supernatant (fs) fractions of nuts (almonds, macadamias, hazelnuts, pistachios, walnuts) concluded that this is the first study which presents the chemopreventive effects (reduction of tumour-promoting desoxycholic acid, rise in chemopreventive SCFA, protection against oxidative stress) of different nuts after in vitro digestion and fermentation, and shows the potential importance of nuts in the prevention of colon cancer, according to "In vitro fermented nuts exhibit chemopreventive effects in HT29 colon cancer cells" by Lux S, Scharlau D, Schlörmann W, Birringer M, Glei M.(a)
2. Antioxidant effects
In the compaeison of Compared with other common plant foods, walnuts (Juglans regia) and theirs antioxidant effects found that walnut consumption did not significantly change the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy, well-nourished older adults in this pilot study. However, improvements in linoleic acid and pyridoxal phosphate were observed with chronic consumption, while total plasma thiols were enhanced acutely. Future studies investigating the antioxidant effects of walnuts in humans are warranted, but should include either a larger sample size or a controlled feeding intervention, according to "Chronic and acute effects of walnuts on antioxidant capacity and nutritional status in humans: a randomized, cross-over pilot study" by McKay DL, Chen CY, Yeum KJ, Matthan NR, Lichtenstein AH, Blumberg JB.(b)
3. Cognitive effects
In the study of consuming a diet containing high amounts of fruits and vegetables exhibit fewer age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, found that that blueberry or Concord grape juice supplementation in humans with mild cognitive impairment increased verbal memory performance, thus translating our animal findings to humans. Taken together, these results suggest that a greater intake of high-antioxidant foods such as berries, Concord grapes, and walnuts may increase "health span" and enhance cognitive and motor function in aging, according to "Grape juice, berries, and walnuts affect brain aging and behavior" by Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Willis LM(c)

4. Hyperlipidemic effect
In the evaluation of walnuts (plant n-3 fatty acid) and fatty fish (marine n-3 fatty acid) and theirs effects on serum lipid markers at intakes recommended for primary prevention of CHD found that Serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations in adults who followed the walnut diet (4.87 +/- 0.18 and 2.77 +/- 0.15 mmol/L, respectively) were lower than in those who followed the control diet (5.14 +/- 0.18 and 3.06 +/- 0.15 mmol/L, respectively) and those who followed the fish diet (5.33 +/- 0.18 and 3.2 +/- 0.15 mmol/L, respectively; P < 0.0001), according to "Walnuts and fatty fish influence different serum lipid fractions in normal to mildly hyperlipidemic individuals: a randomized controlled study" by Rajaram S, Haddad EH, Mejia A, Sabaté J.(d)

5. Learning and Memory Functions
In the classification of walnut and its preventive and therapeutic effects found that walnut treated rats also exhibited a significant decrease in food intake while the change in growth rate (in terms of percentage) remained comparable between the two groups. Analysis of brain monoamines exhibited enhanced serotonergic levels in rat brain following oral intake of walnuts. The findings suggest that walnut may exert its hypophagic and nootropic actions via an enhancement of brain 5-HT metabolism, according to "Effects of Walnuts (Juglans regia) on Learning and Memory Functions" by Haider S, Batool Z, Tabassum S, Perveen T, Saleem S, Naqvi F, Javed H, Haleem DJ.(e)

6. Etc.

B. According to the the amount of concentration
1. Omega 3 fatty acid
a. Cardiovascular disease
Omega 3 fatty acid helps to enhance the ratio of cholesterol that reduces the risk of bad cholesterol forming plaques on the arterial wall, causing cardiovascular diseases, according to the study of `Fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease: do they really work?`by Kromhout D, Yasuda S, Geleijnse JM, Shimokawa H.(1)

b. Preterm pregnancy
Omega 3 fatty acid may be beneficial to prevent the altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)), increased homocysteine, and oxidative stress levels that cause epigenetic modifications may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to preterm birth and poor fetal outcome, increasing risk for behavioural disorders in children, according to the study of `Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acids through oxidative stress may reduce neurotrophic factors in preterm pregnancy`by Dhobale M, Joshi S.(2)

2. Manganese
a. Antioxidant
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an enzyme located in mitochondria, is the key enzyme that protects the energy-generating mitochondria from oxidative damage caused by free radicals, according to the study of `The role of manganese superoxide dismutase in inflammation defense`by Li C, Zhou HM.(3)

b. Diabetes risk
deficiency (too little) and efficiency (too much) of some essential trace metals may play a role in the development of diabetes mellitus, including manganese, according to the study of `Copper, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, and zinc levels in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients`by Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Kazi N, Jamali MK, Arain MB, Jalbani N, Kandhro GA.(4)

3. Copper
a. Myeloneuropathy and anemiaCopper deficiency, secondary to zinc overload associated with long-term use may be resulted of Myeloneuropathy and anemia, according to the study of `When metals compete: a case of copper-deficiency myeloneuropathy and anemia`by Spain RI, Leist TP, De Sousa EA.(5)

b. Osteroporosis
Copper found in walnut
associated with right levels of zinc and intake of calcium supplement may reduce the risk of bone loss in the elderly, acccording to the study of `Is there a potential therapeutic value of copper and zinc for osteoporosis?`by Lowe NM, Lowe NM, Fraser WD, Jackson MJ.(6)

C. Other health benefits
1. L-arginine
L-arginine in walnut not only allows blood vessel to relax that helps to enhance the circulatory system in moving blood to provide oxygen, thus reducing the risk of erectile dysfunction in male, according to the study of `Treatment of erectile dysfunction with pycnogenol and L-arginine`by Stanislavov R, Nikolova V.(7), but also reduces the risk of obesity, accprding to the study of `Beneficial effects of L-arginine on reducing obesity: potential mechanisms and important implications for human health`by McKnight JR, Satterfield MC, Jobgen WS, Smith SB, Spencer TE, Meininger CJ, McNeal CJ, Wu G.)8)

2. Antioxidants
Walnut contains high amounts of selenium and vitamin A, C which help to enhance the immune system fighting against arthritis, according to the study of `The antioxidant vitamins A, C, E and selenium in the treatment of arthritis: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials`by Canter PH, Wider B, Ernst E.(9)

3. Magnesium
Magnesium beside enhances the digestive system in absorbing calcium that promotes healthy bone density, it also improves sleeplessness, according to the study of `Magnesium involvement in sleep: genetic and nutritional models`by Chollet D, Franken P, Raffin Y, Henrotte JG, Widmer J, Malafosse A, Tafti M.(10)

4. Etc.

Side effects

1. As always, allergic reaction is a concern for some people
2. No Other known side effect?

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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22172380(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20462428
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19640963
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19339404

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21933782(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21609203
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21977313
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18193174
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19194390
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12133199
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12851125
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20437186
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17522095
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11777170