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Wednesday, 6 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Fruits - Plums (Prunus)




Plums

Plum is a genus of Prunus, containing over 15 species, relatives of the peach, nectarine and almond, belongs to family Rosaceae and native to northern Asia, Europe, North America and Africa's northwest coast. Today it is cultivated all over the globe for commercial purpose as foods and alcoholic drink.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Dietary fiber
3. Protein
4. Vitamin A
5. Vitamin C
6. Vitamin B2
7. Phosphorus
8. Potassium
9. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Polyphenolic compounds
In the identification of the key role of dietary antioxidants in maintaining human health by preventing oxidative damage to cellular components found that a linear correlation between either total phenolic or flavonoid contents and total antioxidant capacity, revealing that these compounds contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity of plums, according to "The antioxidant effect of plums and polyphenolic compounds against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in mouse blood granulocytes" by Bouayed J, Rammal H, Dicko A, Younos C, Soulimani R.(a)

2. Melanoma
In the investigation of MK615, a Prunus mume Steb. Et Zucc ('Ume') Extract and its therapeutic target in patients with melanoma found that MK615 is a potential therapeutic agent for treating malignant melanoma, according to "MK615, a Prunus mume Steb. Et Zucc ('Ume') Extract, Attenuates the Growth of A375 Melanoma Cells by Inhibiting the ERK1/2-Id-1 Pathway" by Tada KI, Kawahara KI, Matsushita S, Hashiguchi T, Maruyama I, Kanekura T.(b)

3. Oral disease
in the classification of MK615, a Prunus mume Steb. Et Zucc ('Ume') Extract and its effect major bacterial infectious diseases found that MK615 has potential as a therapeutic agent for treating and preventing oral diseases such as dental caries and periodontitis, according to "MK615: a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of oral disease" by Morimoto-Yamashita Y, Matsuo M, Komatsuzawa H, Kawahara K, Kikuchi K, Torii M, Tokuda M.(c)

4. Antimicrobial activity
In the study of antimicrobial properties of Prunus mume extract against oral pathogens found that Prunus mume extract may be a potential candidate for developing an oral antimicrobial agent to control or prevent dental diseases associated with oral pathogenic bacteria, according to "Prunus mume extract exhibits antimicrobial activity against pathogenic oral bacteria" by Seneviratne CJ, Wong RW, Hägg U, Chen Y, Herath TD, Samaranayake PL, Kao R.(d)

5. Antioxidant activity
In the assessment of the antiradical activity of seven varieties of plums and their protective effects against oxidative stress found that the major polyphenolics in plums, identified and quantified using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, were tested to evaluate their protective effect on peripheral blood granulocytes from oxidative stress. The results suggest that individual polyphenolics contribute directly to the total protective effect of plums, according to "The antioxidant effect of plums and polyphenolic compounds against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in mouse blood granulocytes" by Bouayed J, Rammal H, Dicko A, Younos C, Soulimani R.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin C
Asthma
Vitamin C is one of the key antioxidant vitamins which is abundant in the extracellular fluid lining the lung and low vitamin C intake has been associated with pulmonary dysfunction, such as asthma, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(I)

b. DNA Damage
Ascorbic acid (AA), known as vitamin C, has important antioxidant vitamin has exerted the activity in preventing (imazalil)IMA-induced cause of DNA damage, according to the stuyd of "The protective role of ascorbic acid on imazalil-induced genetic damage assessed by the cytogenetic tests' by Türkez H, Aydin E.(II)

2. Vitamin K
Vitamin K not only plays an important role in protecting our skin from aging, it is also needed for the proper clotting of blood, thus decreasing the risk of excessive bleeding, in a study of "Delayed vitamin K deficiency as a cause of bleeding: still a concern in the 21st century!" by Kasatkar P, Shetty S, Ghosh K., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Laboratory tests confirmed acquired bleeding diathesis due to vitamin K deficiency, which was corrected after adequate vitamin K supplementation. VKDB is not an uncommon phenomenon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a child with bleeding diathesis.

3. Vitamin A
Vitamin A is not only important in preventing types I diabetes, according to "A close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities in skin tissues" by Takahashi N, Takasu S.(1) but also may be associated with compromised bone health, according to "Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D" by Ahmadieh H, Arabi A.(III)

4. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(IV)

5. Tryptophan
It is one of important element in assisting the production of serotonin hormone of which is essential to enhance relaxation and sleep, according to the study of "The tryptophan depletion test. Impact on sleep in healthy subjects and patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder" by Huwig-Poppe C, Voderholzer U, Backhaus J, Riemann D, König A, Hohagen F., posted in PubMed(V) and reduces the risk of , panic, social anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders, according to the study of "Effects of acute tryptophan depletion in serotonin reuptake inhibitor-remitted patients with generalized anxiety disorder" by Hood SD, Hince DA, Davies SJ, Argyropoulos S, Robinson H, Potokar J, Nutt DJ., posted in PubMed (VI)

6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Antioxidants
Plum contains high amount of antioxidants, it enhances the immune system fighting against the forming of free radical, thereby,
a) Reducing the risk of cholesterol oxidation, according to the study of "Cholesterol oxidation: health hazard and the role of antioxidants in prevention' by Valenzuela A, Sanhueza J, Nieto S. posted in PubMed(1), thus lowering the risk of heart diseases and stroke.
b) Regulating cell growth, thus decreasing the risk of tumor and cancer, and aging related diseases, according to the study of "The role of polyphenolic antioxidants in health, disease, and aging" by Obrenovich ME, Nair NG, Beyaz A, Aliev G, Reddy VP., posted in PubMed(2)
c) Guarding our body against inflammation and infection. according to the study of "[Antimicrobial activity of phenolic antioxidants].[Article in French]" by Turcotte P, Saheb SA., posted in PubMed(3)

2. Constipation
Prune is known for their laxative effect that helps to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool, most often taken to treat constipation due to high of fluid and fiber, according to the study of "Randomised clinical trial: dried plums (prunes) vs. psyllium for constipation" by Attaluri A, Donahoe R, Valestin J, Brown K, Rao SS., posted in PubMed(4)

3. Vision health
Retinal, the aldehyde form of the vitamin A, enhances the synthesis of rhodopsin, thus allowing the rod cells to perform its function to detect light in a low-light conditions and night vision, according to the "The intake of carotenoids in an older Australian population: The Blue Mountains Eye Study" by Manzi F, Flood V, Webb K, Mitchell P., posted in PubMed(5)

4. Osteoporosis
Phosphorus is a vital part of the process related to growth and maintenance of bones and teeth. It works in association with calcium to provide strong bones, which can withstand normal wear and tear in human life, by curing and developing proper function in fractured bones, according to the study of "Dietary protein, phosphorus and potassium are beneficial to bone mineral density in adult men consuming adequate dietary calcium" by Whiting SJ, Boyle JL, Thompson A, Mirwald RL, Faulkner RA., posted in PubMed(6)

5. Potassium
Potassium is necessary mineral in balancing the ratio with sodium for lymphatic system in regulating the fluid in the body, and reducing the cardiovascular diseases, according to the study of "Sodium and potassium intake and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: the Rotterdam Study" by Geleijnse JM, Witteman JC, Stijnen T, Kloos MW, Hofman A, Grobbee DE., posted in PubMed(7)

6. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Since it contain measurable amounts of oxalate, it reduces the absorption of calcium and people with untreated kidney and gallbladder diseases should consult with their doctor before consuming.
2. Its seeds contains amygdalin, large doses of these chemicals are hazardous to human health as it can cause cyanide poisoning.
3. Etc..


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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19735188
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22076920
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21565449
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21401748
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19735188

(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986888
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21967159
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332
(V) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10721036
(VI) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19936713

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14631863
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20818981
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/743641
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Dried%20plums%20more%20safe%2C%20effective%20than%20psyllium%20to%20treat%20constipation
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12020387
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12356781
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17902026