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Wednesday, 6 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Fruits - Pears (Pyrus)


Pears
Pear is Genus Pyrus containg over 30 difference species, belongs to the family Rosaceae and native to western Europe and north Africa east right across Asia. Today, it is cultivation in the cool temperated weather regions all over the world for commercial purposes.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars3
3. Fiber
4. Protein
5. Vitamin A
6. Vitamin C
7. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
8. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
9. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
10. Pantothenic acid (B5)
11. Vitamin B6
12. Folate (Vitamin B9)
13. Vitamin C
14. Vitamin K
15. Calcium
16. Copper
17. Iron
18. Magnesium
19. Phosphorus
20. Potassium
21. Zinc
22. Etc.

Health Benefits
A. health benefits according to studies
1. Antioxidants
In the classification of
betalains in juices prepared from Moroccan yellow cactus pears and its antioxidant effect found that the pigments tested act as mixed inhibitors. The inhibitive action of the extracts is discussed in term of adsorption and that such adsorption follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated values of the free energy of adsorption indicated that the adsorption process is spontaneous, according to "Betalain: a particular class of antioxidant pigment" by El Gharras H.(a)

2.
Glycemic index
In the assessment of the six kinds of fruits tested were grapes, Asian pears, guavas, golden kiwifruit, lychees and bananas and their glycemic benefits found that the glycemic index values of grapes, Asian pears, guavas, golden kiwifruit, lychees and bananas were 49.0 ± 4.5, 25.9 ± 2.9, 32.8 ± 5.2, 47.0 ± 6.5, 60.0 ± 8.0 and 41.3 ± 3.5. In healthy subjects, the glycemic index values were 49.1 ± 7.3, 18.0 ± 5.4, 31.1 ± 5.1, 47.3 ± 12.1, 47.9 ± 6.8 and 35.1 ± 5.6. and concluded that glycemic index and peak incremental indices in healthy subjects can be approximately the same for Type 2 diabetes, according to "Glycemia and peak incremental indices of six popular fruits in Taiwan: healthy and Type 2 diabetes subjects compared" by Chen YY, Wu PC, Weng SF, Liu JF.(b)

3.
Pancreatic cancer
In the observation of Proanthocyanidins with three or more mers and their inversely related to pancreatic cancer risk found that dietary proanthocyanidins-mostly present in apples, pears and pulses-may convey some protection against pancreatic cancer risk, according to "Proanthocyanidins and other flavonoids in relation to pancreatic cancer: a case-control study in Italy" by Rossi M, Lugo A, Lagiou P, Zucchetto A, Polesel J, Serraino D, Negri E, Trichopoulos D, La Vecchia C.(c)

4. Stroke
In the assessment of pigmented bioactive compounds, (eg, carotenoids, anthocyanidins, and flavonoids) and theirs effect on stroke found that Higher intake of white fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with incident stroke (Q4, >171 g/d, versus Q1, ≤78 g/d; HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.29-0.77). Each 25-g/d increase in white fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a 9% lower risk of stroke (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.97). Apples and pears were the most commonly consumed white fruit and vegetables (55%), according to "Colors of fruit and vegetables and 10-year incidence of stroke" by Oude Griep LM, Verschuren WM, Kromhout D, Ocké MC, Geleijnse JM.(d)

5. Antioxidant and Antiinflammation Capacities
in the research of total phenolics and flavonoids contents of commercial pears and theirs antioxidant and antiinflammation capacities found that gallic acid ranged from 5.23 to 10.72 μg/g, catechin from 0.41 to 28.83 μg/g, chlorogenic acid from 485.11 to 837.03 μg/g, caffeic acid from 0 to 1.16 μg/g, epicatechin from 6.73 to 131.49 μg/g, and rutin from 0.92 to 104.64 μg/g, according to "Antioxidant and Antiinflammation Capacities of Some Pear Cultivars" by Li X, Gao WY, Huang LJ, Zhang JY, Guo XH(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(I)

2. Vitamin Ca. Asthma
Vitamin C is one of the key antioxidant vitamins which is abundant in the extracellular fluid lining the lung and low vitamin C intake has been associated with pulmonary dysfunction, such as asthma, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(II)
b. DNA Damage
Ascorbic acid (AA), known as vitamin C, has important antioxidant vitamin has exerted the activity in preventing (imazalil)IMA-induced cause of DNA damage, according to the stuyd of "The protective role of ascorbic acid on imazalil-induced genetic damage assessed by the cytogenetic tests' by Türkez H, Aydin E.(III)

2. Vitamin Ka) Bone density
A study by done by Vermeer, M H Knapen, and L J Schurger stated "it (vitamin K) was shown that administration of 1-10 mg of Vitamin K is paralleled by a moderate increase in the serum markers for bone formation (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase), or by a slight decrease in the urinary hydroxyproline exceretion ( a marker for bone resorption), and by a reduction of urinary calcium loss. Most prominent effects were obtained in fast losers of calcium."

b) Antiging
By protecting the under layer of skin membranes and stopping skin bleeding, according to the study of "Vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors deficiency" by Brenner B, Kuperman AA, Watzka M, Oldenburg J.(IV)

4. PotassiumPotassium beside is important in maintaining the regular contraction and relaxation of the muscle, that helps to reducing the risk of hypokalemia, it also helps the lymphatic system in regulating the levels of fluid in the body, thus lessening the risk of lymphedema, swelling caused by the accumulation of lymph fluid. In a study of "Narrative review: evolving concepts in potassium homeostasis and hypokalemia" by Greenlee M, Wingo CS, McDonough AA, Youn JH, Kone BC., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19414841), researchers found that recent experimental insights into the participation of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in potassium homeostasis. New data make clear that feedforward homeostatic responses activate when decreased potassium intake is sensed, even when plasma potassium concentration is still within the normal range and before frank hypokalemia ensues, in addition to the classic feedback activation of renal potassium conservation when plasma potassium concentration decreases.

5. CalciumIt also contains a variety of important nutrients, including calcium for the hair, teeth, nails, muscles and bones, according to the article of "Minerals" posted in VeganPeace(V)

6. Etc.
C. Other health benefits
1. Immune system
Since it contains high amount of vitamin C it enhances the immune system in fighting against the forming of irregular cell growth due to oxidation, thus decreasing the risk of free radical cause of tumor and cancer, according to the study of "Vitamin C: the nontoxic, nonrate-limited, antioxidant free radical scavenger"by Cathcart RF 3rd., posted in PubMed(1)

2. Fibers
Fiber in pear reduces the risk of bad cholesterol accumulation, thus decreasing the risk of heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases, according to the study of "Effects of soluble dietary fiber on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk" by Bazzano LA., posted in PubMed(2), but also reduces the development of inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer, according to the study of "Influence of dietary fiber on inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer: importance of fermentation pattern" by Rose DJ, DeMeo MT, Keshavarzian A, Hamaker BR., posted in PubMed(3)

3. Capillaries
Vitamin C is important for enhancing the immune system in fighting against the invasion of virus and bacteria causes of infection and inflammation, according to the study of "Immune-enhancing role of vitamin C and zinc and effect on clinical conditions" by Wintergerst ES, Maggini S, Hornig DH., posted in PubMed(4), it also improves the flexibility of small veins from breaking off, according to the study of "Effects of benfluorex-vitamin C supplementation on cutaneous capillaries of diabetic rats" by Sari Kiliçaslan SM, Ozer C., posted in PubMed(5)

4. Vision health
Vitamin A protects against muscular degeneration caused by free radical, promotes good vision, especially in low light and maintain normal skin health by switching on genes and differentiating (immature skin cells) into mature epidermal cells, according to the study of "The intake of carotenoids in an older Australian population: The Blue Mountains Eye Study" by Manzi F, Flood V, Webb K, Mitchell P., posted in PubMed(6)

5. Neurodegeneration
Since pear contains iron, the mineral which is vital for production of red blood cells and formation hemoglobin, that help to enhance the absorption of oxygen into the blood in nourishing the needs of body cells. It is an integral part of many proteins and enzymes that maintains various physiological functions, over dose of iron may increase the risk of neurodegenerative diseases associated with iron dyshomeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction, according to the study of "Iron-dependent functions of mitochondria--relation to neurodegeneration" by Gille G, Reichmann H., posted in PubMed(7)

6. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Over consuming pear juice may reduce the absorption of nutrients for infants and increase the risk of obesity for children.
2. It may cause allergic effect for some allergy sufferers.
3. Etc.


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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22164774
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22128219
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22052986
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21921279
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21824135

(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986888
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19598072
(V) http://www.veganpeace.com/nutrient_information/nutrient_info/minerals_info.htm

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4069036
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18937894
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17345958
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16373990
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19302834
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12020387
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21161302